Manuel PostGIS 3.3.0dev

DEV (Sun 26 Jun 2022 09:14:44 PM UTC rev. 8135ef5 )

The PostGIS Development Group

Abstract

PostGIS est une extension du système de base de PostgreSQL données relationnel-objet qui permet de stocker des objets SIG (Système d'Information Géographique) dans la base. PostGIS comporte un support des index spatiaux R-Tree basé sur GiST et des fonctions d'analyse et de traitement des objets SIG.

Manuel de la version 3.3.0dev

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License. Feel free to use this material any way you like, but we ask that you attribute credit to the PostGIS Project and wherever possible, a link back to http://postgis.net.


Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. Comité de direction du projet (Project Steering Committee)
1.2. Core Contributors Present
1.3. Core Contributors Past
1.4. Autres contributeurs
2. Installation de PostGIS
2.1. Version courte
2.2. Compilation et installation depuis les sources: détail
2.2.1. Obtenir les Sources
2.2.2. Pré requis à l'installation
2.2.3. Configuration
2.2.4. Compiler
2.2.5. Compiler les Extensions PostGIS et les déployer
2.2.6. Tests
2.2.7. Installation
2.3. Installation et utilisation de l'extension address standardize
2.3.1. Installation de Regex::Assemble
2.4. Installer, mettre à jour le Géocodeur Tiger et charger des données
2.4.1. Activation du Géocodeur TIger dans votre base de données PostGIS
2.4.2. Activation du Géocodeur TIger dans votre base de données PostGIS Sans les Extensions
2.4.3. Utilisation de l'Extension Address Standardizer avec le Geocodeur Tiger
2.4.4. Chargement des données Tiger
2.4.5. Mise à jour de l'installation du Géocodeur Tiger
2.5. Problèmes courants pendant l'installation
3. Administration de PostGIS
3.1. Performance Tuning
3.1.1. Startup
3.1.2. Runtime
3.2. Configurer la prise en charge du raster
3.3. Creating spatial databases
3.3.1. Spatially enable database using EXTENSION
3.3.2. Spatially enable database without using EXTENSION (discouraged)
3.3.3. Create a spatially-enabled database from a template
3.4. Upgrading spatial databases
3.4.1. Soft upgrade
3.4.2. Hard upgrade
4. Data Management
4.1. Spatial Data Model
4.1.1. OGC Geometry
4.1.2. SQL/MM Part 3 - Curves
4.1.3. WKT and WKB
4.2. Geometry Data Type
4.2.1. PostGIS EWKB and EWKT
4.3. Geography Data Type
4.3.1. Creating Geography Tables
4.3.2. Using Geography Tables
4.3.3. When to use the Geography data type
4.3.4. Geography Advanced FAQ
4.4. Geometry Validation
4.4.1. Simple Geometry
4.4.2. Valid Geometry
4.4.3. Managing Validity
4.5. Spatial Reference Systems
4.5.1. SPATIAL_REF_SYS Table
4.5.2. User-Defined Spatial Reference Systems
4.6. Spatial Tables
4.6.1. Créer une table spatiale
4.6.2. GEOMETRY_COLUMNS View
4.6.3. Manually Registering Geometry Columns
4.7. Loading Spatial Data
4.7.1. Using SQL to Load Data
4.7.2. Using the Shapefile Loader
4.8. Extracting Spatial Data
4.8.1. Using SQL to Extract Data
4.8.2. Using the Shapefile Dumper
4.9. Spatial Indexes
4.9.1. GiST Indexes
4.9.2. BRIN Indexes
4.9.3. SP-GiST Indexes
4.9.4. Tuning Index Usage
5. Requêtes spatiales
5.1. Déterminer les relations spatiales
5.1.1. Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model
5.1.2. Named Spatial Relationships
5.1.3. General Spatial Relationships
5.2. Using Spatial Indexes
5.3. Examples of Spatial SQL
6. Astuces de performances
6.1. Petites tables de grandes géométries
6.1.1. Description du problème
6.1.2. Solutions de contournement
6.2. CLUSTER d'index géométriques
6.3. Eviter les conversions de dimension
7. Building Applications
7.1. Utiliser MapServer
7.1.1. Utilisation basique
7.1.2. Questions les plus fréquemment posées
7.1.3. Usage avancé
7.1.4. Exemples
7.2. Clients Java (JDBC)
7.3. C Clients (libpq)
7.3.1. Text Cursors
7.3.2. Binary Cursors
8. Référence PostGIS
8.1. Les types Geometry/Geography/Box de PostgreSQL PostGIS
8.2. Fonctions de gestion
8.3. Constructeurs de géométries
8.4. Fonctions d'accès aux géométries
8.5. Geometry Editors
8.6. Geometry Validation
8.7. Spatial Reference System Functions
8.8. Geometry Input
8.8.1. Well-Known Text (WKT)
8.8.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB)
8.8.3. Other Formats
8.9. Geometry Output
8.9.1. Well-Known Text (WKT)
8.9.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB)
8.9.3. Other Formats
8.10. Opérateurs
8.10.1. Bounding Box Operators
8.10.2. Opérateurs
8.11. Spatial Relationships
8.11.1. Topological Relationships
8.11.2. Distance Relationships
8.12. Measurement Functions
8.13. Overlay Functions
8.14. Geometry Processing
8.15. Affine Transformations
8.16. Clustering Functions
8.17. Bounding Box Functions
8.18. Référencement linéaire
8.19. Trajectory Functions
8.20. SFCGAL Functions
8.21. Support des transactions longues
8.22. Version Functions
8.23. Variables PostGIS GUC ( Grand Unified Custom Variables )
8.24. Troubleshooting Functions
9. Foire Aux Questions PostGIS
10. Topologie
10.1. Les types associés à "Topology"
10.2. Topology Domains
10.3. Topology and TopoGeometry Management
10.4. Topology Statistics Management
10.5. Topology Constructors
10.6. Topology Editors
10.7. Topology Accessors
10.8. Topology Processing
10.9. TopoGeometry Constructors
10.10. TopoGeometry Editors
10.11. TopoGeometry Accessors
10.12. TopoGeometry Outputs
10.13. Topology Spatial Relationships
10.14. Importing and exporting Topologies
10.14.1. Using the Topology exporter
10.14.2. Using the Topology importer
11. Raster Data Management, Queries, and Applications
11.1. Loading and Creating Rasters
11.1.1. Using raster2pgsql to load rasters
11.1.2. Creating rasters using PostGIS raster functions
11.1.3. Using "out db" cloud rasters
11.2. Raster Catalogs
11.2.1. Raster Columns Catalog
11.2.2. Raster Overviews
11.3. Building Custom Applications with PostGIS Raster
11.3.1. PHP Example Outputting using ST_AsPNG in concert with other raster functions
11.3.2. ASP.NET C# Example Outputting using ST_AsPNG in concert with other raster functions
11.3.3. Java console app that outputs raster query as Image file
11.3.4. Use PLPython to dump out images via SQL
11.3.5. Outputting Rasters with PSQL
12. Raster Reference
12.1. Raster Support Data types
12.2. Raster Management
12.3. Raster Constructors
12.4. Raster Accessors
12.5. Raster Band Accessors
12.6. Raster Pixel Accessors and Setters
12.7. Raster Editors
12.8. Raster Band Editors
12.9. Raster Band Statistics and Analytics
12.10. Raster Inputs
12.11. Raster Outputs
12.12. Raster Processing: Map Algebra
12.13. Built-in Map Algebra Callback Functions
12.14. Raster Processing: DEM (Elevation)
12.15. Raster Processing: Raster to Geometry
12.16. Raster Operators
12.17. Raster and Raster Band Spatial Relationships
12.18. Raster Tips
12.18.1. Out-DB Rasters
13. Foire Aux Questions PostGIS Raster
14. PostGIS Extras
14.1. Address Standardizer
14.1.1. How the Parser Works
14.1.2. Address Standardizer Types
14.1.3. Address Standardizer Tables
14.1.4. Address Standardizer Functions
14.2. Tiger Geocoder
15. PostGIS Special Functions Index
15.1. PostGIS Aggregate Functions
15.2. PostGIS Window Functions
15.3. PostGIS SQL-MM Compliant Functions
15.4. PostGIS Geography Support Functions
15.5. PostGIS Raster Support Functions
15.6. PostGIS Geometry / Geography / Raster Dump Functions
15.7. PostGIS Box Functions
15.8. PostGIS Functions that support 3D
15.9. PostGIS Curved Geometry Support Functions
15.10. PostGIS Polyhedral Surface Support Functions
15.11. PostGIS Function Support Matrix
15.12. New, Enhanced or changed PostGIS Functions
15.12.1. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.3
15.12.2. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.2
15.12.3. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.1
15.12.4. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.0
15.12.5. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.5
15.12.6. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.4
15.12.7. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.3
15.12.8. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.2
15.12.9. PostGIS functions breaking changes in 2.2
15.12.10. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.1
15.12.11. PostGIS functions breaking changes in 2.1
15.12.12. PostGIS Functions new, behavior changed, or enhanced in 2.0
15.12.13. PostGIS Functions changed behavior in 2.0
15.12.14. PostGIS Functions new, behavior changed, or enhanced in 1.5
15.12.15. PostGIS Functions new, behavior changed, or enhanced in 1.4
15.12.16. PostGIS Functions new in 1.3
16. Rapporter un problème
16.1. Rapporter un problème logiciel
16.2. Reporting Documentation Issues
A. Annexes
A.1. PostGIS 3.3.0alpha1
A.2. PostGIS 3.2.0 (Olivier Courtin Edition)
A.3. PostGIS 3.2.0beta3
A.4. Release 3.2.0beta2
A.5. Release 3.2.0beta1
A.6. Release 3.2.0alpha1
A.7. Release 3.1.0beta1
A.8. Release 3.1.0alpha3
A.9. Release 3.1.0alpha2
A.10. Release 3.1.0alpha1
A.11. Release 3.0.0
A.12. Release 3.0.0rc2
A.13. Release 3.0.0rc1
A.14. Release 3.0.0beta1
A.15. Release 3.0.0alpha4
A.16. Release 3.0.0alpha3
A.17. Release 3.0.0alpha2
A.18. Release 3.0.0alpha1
A.19. Release 2.5.0
A.20. Release 2.4.5
A.21. Release 2.4.4
A.22. Release 2.4.3
A.23. Release 2.4.2
A.24. Release 2.4.1
A.25. Release 2.4.0
A.26. Release 2.3.3
A.27. Release 2.3.2
A.28. Release 2.3.1
A.29. Release 2.3.0
A.30. Release 2.2.2
A.31. Release 2.2.1
A.32. Release 2.2.0
A.33. Release 2.1.8
A.34. Release 2.1.7
A.35. Release 2.1.6
A.36. Release 2.1.5
A.37. Release 2.1.4
A.38. Release 2.1.3
A.39. Release 2.1.2
A.40. Release 2.1.1
A.41. Release 2.1.0
A.42. Release 2.0.5
A.43. Release 2.0.4
A.44. Release 2.0.3
A.45. Release 2.0.2
A.46. Version 2.0.1
A.47. Release 2.0.0
A.48. Release 1.5.4
A.49. Release 1.5.3
A.50. Release 1.5.2
A.51. Release 1.5.1
A.52. Release 1.5.0
A.53. Release 1.4.0
A.54. Release 1.3.6
A.55. Release 1.3.5
A.56. Release 1.3.4
A.57. Release 1.3.3
A.58. Release 1.3.2
A.59. Release 1.3.1
A.60. Release 1.3.0
A.61. Release 1.2.1
A.62. Release 1.2.0
A.63. Release 1.1.6
A.64. Release 1.1.5
A.65. Release 1.1.4
A.66. Release 1.1.3
A.67. Release 1.1.2
A.68. Release 1.1.1
A.69. Release 1.1.0
A.70. Release 1.0.6
A.71. Release 1.0.5
A.72. Release 1.0.4
A.73. Release 1.0.3
A.74. Release 1.0.2
A.75. Release 1.0.1
A.76. Release 1.0.0
A.77. Release 1.0.0RC6
A.78. Release 1.0.0RC5
A.79. Release 1.0.0RC4
A.80. Release 1.0.0RC3
A.81. Release 1.0.0RC2
A.82. Release 1.0.0RC1

Chapter 1. Introduction

PostGIS is a spatial extension for the PostgreSQL relational database that was created by Refractions Research Inc, as a spatial database technology research project. Refractions is a GIS and database consulting company in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, specializing in data integration and custom software development.

PostGIS is now a project of the OSGeo Foundation and is developed and funded by many FOSS4G developers and organizations all over the world that gain great benefit from its functionality and versatility.

The PostGIS project development group plans on supporting and enhancing PostGIS to better support a range of important GIS functionality in the areas of OGC and SQL/MM spatial standards, advanced topological constructs (coverages, surfaces, networks), data source for desktop user interface tools for viewing and editing GIS data, and web-based access tools.

1.1. Comité de direction du projet (Project Steering Committee)

Le comité de direction du projet (PSC) coordonne la direction générale, les cycles de publication, la documentation et les efforts spécifiques pour le projet PostGIS. De plus, le PSC fournit un support général aux utilisateurs, accepte et approuve les patches de la communauté PostGIS et vote sur divers points concernant PostGIS, tels que les accès commit pour les développeurs, les nouveaux membres du PSC ou les changements majeurs d'API.

Raúl Marín Rodríguez

MVT support, Bug fixing, Performance and stability improvements, GitHub curation, alignment of PostGIS with PostgreSQL releases

Regina Obe

Buildbot Maintenance, Windows production and experimental builds, documentation, alignment of PostGIS with PostgreSQL releases, X3D support, TIGER geocoder support, management functions.

Darafei Praliaskouski

Index improvements, bug fixing and geometry/geography function improvements, SFCGAL, raster, GitHub curation, and bot maintenance.

Paul Ramsey (Directeur)

Co-founder of PostGIS project. General bug fixing, geography support, geography and geometry index support (2D, 3D, nD index and anything spatial index), underlying geometry internal structures, GEOS functionality integration and alignment with GEOS releases, alignment of PostGIS with PostgreSQL releases, loader/dumper, and Shapefile GUI loader.

Sandro Santilli

Bug fixes and maintenance, buildbot maintenance, git mirror management, management functions, integration of new GEOS functionality and alignment with GEOS releases, topology support, and raster framework and low level API functions.

1.2. Core Contributors Present

Nicklas Avén

Distance function enhancements (including 3D distance and relationship functions) and additions, Tiny WKB (TWKB) output format and general user support

Dan Baston

Geometry clustering function additions, other geometry algorithm enhancements, GEOS enhancements and general user support

Martin Davis

GEOS enhancements and documentation

Björn Harrtell

MapBox Vector Tile and GeoBuf functions. Gogs testing and GitLab experimentation.

Aliaksandr Kalenik

Geometry Processing, PostgreSQL gist, general bug fixing

1.3. Core Contributors Past

Bborie Park

Prior PSC Member. Raster development, integration with GDAL, raster loader, user support, general bug fixing, testing on various OS (Slackware, Mac, Windows, and more)

Mark Cave-Ayland

Prior PSC Member. Coordinated bug fixing and maintenance effort, spatial index selectivity and binding, loader/dumper, and Shapefile GUI Loader, integration of new and new function enhancements.

Jorge Arévalo

Développement Raster, support du driver GDAL, outil de chargement.

Olivier Courtin

Fonctions d'entrée/sortie XML (KML,GML) et fonctions GeoJSON, support 3D et correction de bugs.

Chris Hodgson

Ancien membre du PSC. Développement général, maintenance du site et du robot de build, gestion de l'incubation OSGeo.

Mateusz Loskot

CMake support for PostGIS, built original raster loader in python and low level raster API functions

Kevin Neufeld

Prior PSC Member. Documentation and documentation support tools, buildbot maintenance, advanced user support on PostGIS newsgroup, and PostGIS maintenance function enhancements.

Dave Blasby

Développeur original et co-fondateur de PostGIS. Dave a écrit les objets côté serveur, les liaisons des index, et de nombreuses fonctions d'analyse côté serveur.

Jeff Lounsbury

Développement originel de l'outil de chargement/export de shapefiles. Actuel représentant du projet PostGIS.

Mark Leslie

Maintenance générale et développement de fonctions du noyau PostGIS. Amélioration du support des courbes. Interface graphique de chargement des shapefiles.

Pierre Racine

Architect of PostGIS raster implementation. Raster overall architecture, prototyping, programming support

David Zwarg

Raster development (mostly map algebra analytic functions)

1.4. Autres contributeurs

Individual Contributors

Alex BodnaruGreg TroxelMatt Bretl
Alex MayrhoferGuillaume LelargeMatthias Bay
Andrea PeriGiuseppe BroccoloMaxime Guillaud
Andreas Forø TollefsenHan WangMaxime van Noppen
Andreas NeumannHaribabu KommiMichael Fuhr
Andrew GierthHavard TveiteMike Toews
Anne GhislaIIDA TetsushiNathan Wagner
Antoine BajoletIngvild NystuenNathaniel Clay
Arthur LesuisseJackie LengNikita Shulga
Artur ZakirovJames MarcaNorman Vine
Barbara PhillipotJan KatinsPatricia Tozer
Ben JubbJason SmithRafal Magda
Bernhard ReiterJeff AdamsRalph Mason
Björn EsserJim JonesRémi Cura
Brian HamlinJoe ConwayRichard Greenwood
Bruce RindahlJonne SavolainenRoger Crew
Bruno Wolff IIIJose Carlos Martinez LlariRon Mayer
Bryce L. NordgrenJörg HabenichtSebastiaan Couwenberg
Carl AndersonJulien RouhaudSergei Shoulbakov
Charlie SavageKashif RasulSergey Fedoseev
Christoph BergKlaus FoersterShinichi Sugiyama
Christoph Moench-TegederKris JurkaShoaib Burq
Dane SpringmeyerLaurenz AlbeSilvio Grosso
Dave FuhryLars RoessigerStefan Corneliu Petrea
David ZwargLeo HsuSteffen Macke
David ZwargLoïc BartolettiStepan Kuzmin
David ZwargLoic DacharyStephen Frost
Dmitry VasilyevLuca S. PercichSteven Ottens
Eduin CarrilloLucas C. Villa RealTalha Rizwan
Eugene AntimirovMaria Arias de ReynaTom Glancy
Even RouaultMarc DucobuTom van Tilburg
Frank WarmerdamMark SondheimVincent Mora
George SilvaMarkus SchaberVincent Picavet
Gerald FenoyMarkus WannerVolf Tomáš
Gino LucreziMatt Amos 

Corporate Sponsors

Certaines organisations ont contribué du temps de développeur, de l'hébergement, ou du financement direct pour le projet PostGIS.

Campagnes de financement participatif

Crowd funding campaigns are campaigns we run to get badly wanted features funded that can service a large number of people. Each campaign is specifically focused on a particular feature or set of features. Each sponsor chips in a small fraction of the needed funding and with enough people/organizations contributing, we have the funds to pay for the work that will help many. If you have an idea for a feature you think many others would be willing to co-fund, please post to the PostGIS newsgroup your thoughts and together we can make it happen.

PostGIS 2.0.0 a été la première version où cette stratégie a été testée. Nous avons utilisé PledgeBank et avons eu deux campagnes de financement réussies.

postgistopology - Plus de 10 sponsors ont contribué chacun 250USD pour créer la function toTopoGeometry et sortir le support de la topologie dans la version 2.0.0. Ce fut une réussite.

postgistopology - Plus de 10 sponsors ont contribué chacun 250USD pour créer la function toTopoGeometry et sortir le support de la topologie dans la version 2.0.0. Ce fut une réussite.

Bibliothèques de base importantes

The GEOS geometry operations library

The GDAL Geospatial Data Abstraction Library used to power much of the raster functionality introduced in PostGIS 2. In kind, improvements needed in GDAL to support PostGIS are contributed back to the GDAL project.

The PROJ cartographic projection library

Enfin, mais non des moindres, le projet de SGBD PostgreSQL, géant sur les épaules duquel PostGIS s'appuie. La rapidité et flexibilité de PostGIS serait impossible sans l'extensibilité, le plannificateur de requêtes, les index GiST et les nombreuses fonctionnalités SQL que fournit PostgreSQL.

Chapter 2. Installation de PostGIS

Ce chapitre décrit les étapes nécessaires pour installer PostGIS

2.1. Version courte

Pour compiler, assurez-vous que toutes les dépendances soient dans votre chemin de recherche.

tar xvfz postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz
cd postgis-3.3.0dev
./configure
make
make install

Une fois PostGIS installé, il est disponible pour chacune des bases de données que vous utilisez.

2.2. Compilation et installation depuis les sources: détail

[Note]

La plupart des systèmes d'exploitation dispose de paquets pré-compilés de PostgreSQL/PostGIS. La compilation est réellement nécessaire uniquement pour disposer des toutes dernières fonctionnalités ou pour les responsables de paquets PostGIS

Cette section présente les instructions générales pour compiler PostGIS. Si la compilation s'effectue sous Windows ou un autre système d'exploitation, des informations complémentaires sont disponibles depuis PostGIS User contributed compile guides and PostGIS Dev Wiki.

Les paquets pré compilés pour différents systèmes d'exploitation sont listés dans PostGIS Pre-built Packages

Pour les utilisateurs Windows, des versions stables sont disponibles par Stackbuilder ou PostGIS Windows download site. Des compilations expérimentales incluant les dernières fonctionnalités sont disponibles depuis very bleeding-edge windows experimental builds. Ces compilations sont généralements mises à jour toutes les unes ou deux semaines, ou chaque fois qu'une nouvelle fonctionnalité intéressante est ajoutée. Vous pouvez les utiliser pour suivre l'avancée des versions de PostGIS

Le module PostGIS est une extension du serveur PostgreSQL. A ce titre, PostGIS 3.3.0dev nécessite l'accès complet aux en-têtes du serveur PostgreSQL afin de pouvoir compiler. Il peut être compilé à partir de la version versions 11 de PostgreSQL ou supérieure. Les versions plus anciennes de PostgreSQL ne sont pas supportées.

Référez-vous aux guides d'installation de PostgreSQL si vous n'avez pas déjà installé PostgreSQL. http://www.postgresql.org .

[Note]

Pour les fonctionnalités de de GEOS, quand vous installez PostgreSQL, vous aurez peut-être besoin de lier explicitement PostgreSQL avec la bibliothèque standard C++:

LDFLAGS=-lstdc++ ./configure [Vos options à la suite]

Ceci est une solution de contournement d'exceptions C++ d'interactions bugués dans des outils de développements plus ancien. Si vous tombez sur ce genre de problèmes (backend soudainement fermé ou des choses similaires) essayez cette astuce. Cela nécessite de recompiler votre PostgreSQL du début, bien sur.

Les étapes suivantes résument la configuration et la compilation des sources PostGIS. Elles ont été rédigées pour les utilisateurs sous Linux et ne fonctionneront pas pour Windows et Mac.

2.2.1. Obtenir les Sources

Les sources de PostGIS sont disponible depuis http://postgis.net/stuff/postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz

wget http://postgis.net/stuff/postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz
tar -xvzf postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz

Un répertoire appelé postgis-3.3.0dev sera créé dans le répertoire courant

Les sources peuvent également être obtenues depuis le dépôt svn http://svn.osgeo.org/postgis/trunk/ .

git clone https://git.osgeo.org/gitea/postgis/postgis.git postgis

Se placer dans le nouveau répertoire créé postgis-3.3.0dev pour poursuivre l'installation

2.2.2. Pré requis à l'installation

La compilation et la manipulation de PostGIS requièrent les éléments suivant:

Obligatoire

  • PostgreSQL 11 ou supérieure. Une installation complete de PostgreSQL (incluant les fichiers header du serveur) nécessaire. PostgreSQL est disponible depuis le site http://www.postgresql.org .

    Pour la liste complète des exigences concernant PostgreSQL / PostGIS et PostGIS/GEOS, veuillez vous référer à http://trac.osgeo.org/postgis/wiki/UsersWikiPostgreSQLPostGIS

  • Un compilateur GNUC C (gcc). D'autres compilateurs ANSI C peuvent être utilisés, mais la compilation avec gcc est source de moins de problèmes

  • GNU Make (gmake ou make). Sur beaucoup de systemes, GNU make est la version par défaut de make. Vous pouvez vérifier la version de make avec la commande make -v. D'autres versions de make peuvent ne pas être compatibles avec le Makefile de PostGIS.

  • Proj reprojection library. Proj 4.9 or above is required. The Proj library is used to provide coordinate reprojection support within PostGIS. Proj is available for download from https://proj.org/ .

  • GEOS geometry library, version 3.6 or greater, but GEOS 3.9+ is required to take full advantage of all the new functions and features. GEOS is available for download from http://trac.osgeo.org/geos/ .

  • LibXML2, version 2.5.x ou supérieure. LibXML2 est utilisée dans certaines fonctions d'import (ST_GeomFromGML and ST_GeomFromKML). LibXML2 est disponible depuis http://xmlsoft.org/downloads.html.

  • JSON-C, version 0.9 ou supérieure. JSON-C est utilisé pour l'import GeoJSON avec la fonction ST_GeomFromGeoJson. JSON-C est disponible depuis https://github.com/json-c/json-c/releases/.

  • GDAL, version 1.8 ou supérieure (la version 1.9 est fortement recommandée car les versions antérieures peuvent ne pas fonctionner). GDAL est requis pour le support des rasters et pour pouvoir installer grâce à CREATE EXTENSION postgis (particulièrement recommandé pour les utilisateur de PostgreSQL 9.1+. GDAL est disponible depuis http://trac.osgeo.org/gdal/wiki/DownloadSource.

  • Ce paramètre est actuellement défectueux: le paquet s'installe uniquement dans le répertoire d'installation de PostgreSQL. Le suivu de ce bug est disponible depuis http://trac.osgeo.org/postgis/ticket/635

Optionnel

  • Pensez à déclarer les pilotes à utiliser, comme décrit dans Section 2.1, “Version courte”.

  • GTK (GTK+2.0, 2.8+) pour compiler le chargeur de shape file shp2pgsql-gui. http://www.gtk.org/ .

  • SFCGAL, version 1.1 (ou supérieure) peut être utilisé pour disposer de fonctions avancées d'analyse en 2D et 3D dans PostGIS. cf Section 8.20, “SFCGAL Functions”. Cela permet également d'utiliser SFCGAL à la place de GEOS pour certaines opérations en 2D disponibles dans les deux systèmes (ST_Intersection ou ST_Area par exemple). Une variable de configuration PostgreSQL, postgis.backend, permet à l'utilisateur de choisir quel système utiliser si SFCGAL est installé (GEOS étant le système par défaut). NB: SFCGAL 1.2 nécessite CGAL 4.3+ et Boost 1.54 (cf: http://oslandia.github.io/SFCGAL/installation.html) https://github.com/Oslandia/SFCGAL.

  • Pour compiler le Section 14.1, “Address Standardizer” vous devez également installer PCRE http://www.pcre.org (généralement installé sur les distribution *nix). Regex::Assemble Le paquet perl CPAN est nécessaire uniquement en cas de compilation des données contenues dans parseaddress-stcities.h. Section 14.1, “Address Standardizer” sera automatiquement compilé s'il détecte la bibliothèque PCRE ou si la variable --with-pcre-dir=/chemin/vers/pcre lors de la phase de configuration (configure).

  • To enable ST_AsMVT protobuf-c library 1.1.0 or higher (for usage) and the protoc-c compiler (for building) are required. Also, pkg-config is required to verify the correct minimum version of protobuf-c. See protobuf-c. By default, Postgis will use Wagyu to validate MVT polygons faster which requires a c++11 compiler. It will use CXXFLAGS and the same compiler as the PostgreSQL installation. To disable this and use GEOS instead use the --without-wagyu during the configure step.

  • CUnit (CUnit). Nécessaire pour les tests de régression. http://cunit.sourceforge.net/

  • DocBook (xsltproc) est nécessaire pour générer la documentation. Docbook est disponible depuis le site http://www.docbook.org/ .

  • DBLatex (dblatex) est nécessaire pour générer la documentation au format PDF. DBLatex est disponible depuis http://dblatex.sourceforge.net/ .

  • ImageMagick (convert) est nécessaire pour générer les images de la documentation. ImageMagick is available from http://www.imagemagick.org/ .

2.2.3. Configuration

Comme pour la plupart des installations linux, la première étape est de générer le Makefile qui sera utilisé pour compiler le code source. Ceci est réalisée en lançant le script shell

./configure

Sans paramètre supplémentaire, cette commande tentera de localiser automatiquement les composants requis et les bibliothèques nécessaires à la compilation de PostGIS. Bien que cela soit l'utilisation la plus commune de la commande ./configure, vous pouvez également ajouter différents paramètres à ce script. Par exemple, vous pouvez définir l'emplacement de bibliothèques ou de programmes si ceux-ci ne sont pas localisés à un emplacement standard.

La liste suivante présente les options les plus courantes. Pour consulter la liste complète utilisez l'option --help ou --help=short.

--with-library-minor-version

Starting with PostGIS 3.0, the library files generated by default will no longer have the minor version as part of the file name. This means all PostGIS 3 libs will end in postgis-3. This was done to make pg_upgrade easier, with downside that you can only install one version PostGIS 3 series in your server. To get the old behavior of file including the minor version: e.g. postgis-3.0 add this switch to your configure statement.

--prefix=PREFIX

Cela correspond à l'emplacement où les bibliothèques et les scripts SQL de PostGIS seront installés. Par défaut, cet emplacement est le même que celui de l'installation de PostgreSQL.

[Caution]

Ce paramètre est actuellement défectueux: le paquet s'installe uniquement dans le répertoire d'installation de PostgreSQL. Le suivu de ce bug est disponible depuis http://trac.osgeo.org/postgis/ticket/635

--with-pgconfig=FILE

PostgreSQL fournit l'utilitaire pg_config permettant aux extensions comme PostGIS de localiser le répertoire d'installation de PostgreSQL. Utiliser ce paramètre (--with-pgconfig=/path/to/pg_config) pour spécifier une installation particulière de PostgreSQL pour laquelle PostGIS doit être compilée.

--with-gdalconfig=FILE

GDAL, une des bibliothèques requises pour le support des rasters. gdal-config pour permettre au logiciel de localiser le répertoire d'installation de GDAL. Utiliser ce paramètre (--with-gdalconfig=/path/to/gdal-config) pour spécifier un répertoire d'installation particulier de GDAL qui sera utilisé pour compiler PostGIS.

--with-geosconfig=FILE

GEOS, une des bibliothèques requises, fournit un utilitaire appelé geos-config permettant aux logiciels de localiser le répertoire d'installation de GEOS. Utiliser ce paramètre (--with-geosconfig=/path/to/geos-config) pour spécifier le repertoire de GEOS qui sera utilisé pour la compilation de PostGIS.

--with-xml2config=FILE

LibXML est la bibliothèque requise pour les traitements GML/KML. Elle est normalement auto détectée en cas d'installation normale. Utiliser ce paramètre ( >--with-xml2config=/path/to/xml2-config) pour spécifier le repertoire de LibXML qui sera utilisé pour la compilation de PostGIS.

--with-projdir=DIR

Proj4 est la bibliothèque de reprojection nécessaire à PostGIS. Utiliser ce paramètre (--with-projdir=/path/to/projdir) pour spécifier le repertoire de LibXML qui sera utilisé pour la compilation de PostGIS.

--with-libiconv=DIR

Répertoire d'installation d'iconv

--with-jsondir=DIR

JSON-C est une bibliothèque sous licence MIT utilisée par PostGIS pour les traitements JSON (ST_GeomFromJSON par exemple). Utiliser ce paramètre (--with-jsondir=/path/to/jsondir) pour spécifier le répertoire de JSON-C qui sera utilisé pour la compilation de PostGIS.

--with-pcredir=DIR

PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expression) est une bibliothèque sous licence BSD requise par l'extension address_standardizer. Utilisez ce paramètre (--with-pcredir=/chemin/vers/pcredir) pour spécifier un répertoire contenant PCRE qui sera utilisé par PostGIS.

--with-gui

Compile l'interface graphique d'import de données (nécessite GTK+2.0). Ceci créé l'interface graphique shp2pgsql-gui à shp2pgsql.

--without-raster

Installation de la gestion des raster

--without-topology

Disable topology support. There is no corresponding library as all logic needed for topology is in postgis-3.3.0dev library.

--with-gettext=no

Par défaut PostGIS tentera de détecter la gestion de gettext et de reposer dessus pour la compilation, cependant si vous tombez sur des problèmes d'incompatibilités qui cause la cassure du chargeur, vous pouvez le désactiver entièrement avec cette commande. Référez vous au ticket http://trac.osgeo.org/postgis/ticket/748 pour un exemple de problème résolu par cette configuration. NOTE : que vous perdez beaucoup de chose en le désactivant. Cela est utilisé pour la gestion de l'aide et des labels internationaux dans le chargeur graphique qui n'est pas documenté et encore expérimental.

--with-sfcgal=PATH

Par défaut, PostGIS ne contiendra pas le support sfcgal sans cet argument. PATH est un argument optionnel permettant de préciser un chemin alternatif vers sfcgal-config.

--without-phony-revision

Disable updating postgis_revision.h to match current HEAD of the git repository.

[Note]

Si vous avez téléchargé PostGIS depuis le dépôt SVN , la première étape est d'exécuter le script.

./autogen.sh

Ce script générera le script configure qui est utilisé pour personnaliser votre installation de PostGIS.

Si vous avez obtenu PostGIS comme archive, lancer la commande ./autogen.sh n'est pas nécessaire puisque configure a déjà été généré.

2.2.4. Compiler

Une fois le Makefile généré, compiler PostGIS est aussi simple que lancer

make

La dernière ligne de la sortie doit être "PostGIS was built successfully. Ready to install."

As of PostGIS v1.4.0, all the functions have comments generated from the documentation. If you wish to install these comments into your spatial databases later, run the command which requires docbook. The postgis_comments.sql and other package comments files raster_comments.sql, topology_comments.sql are also packaged in the tar.gz distribution in the doc folder so no need to make comments if installing from the tar ball. Comments are also included as part of the CREATE EXTENSION install.

make comments

Introduit dans PostGIS 2.0. Cela génère un mémo en html disponible pour une référence rapide ou pour les étudiants. La compilation nécessite xsltproc et génèrera 4 fichiers dans le répertoire doc topology_cheatsheet.html, tiger_geocoder_cheatsheet.html, raster_cheatsheet.html, postgis_cheatsheet.html

Vous pouvez télécharger des pré-compilations disponibles en HTML et PDF à partir de PostGIS / PostgreSQL Study Guides

make cheatsheets

2.2.5. Compiler les Extensions PostGIS et les déployer

Les extensions PostGIS sont compilées et installées automatiquement si vous utilisez PostgreSQL 9.1+

Si vous compilez à partir des dépôts des sources, vous devez compiler les descriptions de fonction d'abord. Ceci est compilé si vous avez docbook installé. Vous pouvez également compiler manuellement avec cette commande :

make comments

Compiler les commentaires n'est pas nécessaire si vous avez compilé à partir d'une release d'archive puisque ceux-ci sont des pré-compilations packagés avec le tar ball.

Si vous compilez avec PostgreSQL 9.1, les extensions doivent être automatiquement compilées comme part du processus make install. Vous pouvez, si nécessaire, compilé à partir des répertoires d'extensions ou copier les fichiers si vous en avez besoin sur un serveur différent.

cd extensions
cd postgis
make clean
make
export PGUSER=postgres #overwrite psql variables
make check #to test before install
make install
# to test extensions
make check RUNTESTFLAGS=--extension
[Note]

make check uses psql to run tests and as such can use psql environment variables. Common ones useful to override are PGUSER,PGPORT, and PGHOST. Refer to psql environment variables

Les fichiers extensions seront toujours les mêmes pour les mêmes version de PostGIS indépendamment de l'OS, par conséquent il n'y a pas de problème à copier les fichiers extensions d'un OS à un autre du moment que vous avez les binaires PostGIS déjà installés sur vos serveurs.

Si vous voulez installer les extensions manuellement sur un serveur différent séparé de votre développement, vous devez copier les fichiers suivants à partir du répertoire extension dans le répertoire PostgreSQL / share / extension de votre installation PostgreSQL ainsi que les binaires nécessaires pour une version correcte de PostGIS si vous ne les avez pas déjà sur le serveur.

  • Ceux-ci sont les fichiers de contrôle qui renvoie les informations telles que la version de l'extension à installer si non spécifié. postgis.control, postgis_topology.control.

  • Tous les fichiers dans le répertoire /sql de chaque extension. Notez que ceux-ci nécessitent d'être copiées à la racine du répertoire share/extension de PostgreSQL

Une fois fait, vous devez voir postgis, postgis_topology comme extensions disponibles dans PgAdmin -> extensions.

Si vous utilisez psql, vous pouvez vérifier que les extensions sont installées en lançant cette requête :

SELECT name, default_version,installed_version
FROM pg_available_extensions WHERE name LIKE 'postgis%' or name LIKE 'address%';

             name             | default_version | installed_version
------------------------------+-----------------+-------------------
 address_standardizer         | 3.3.0dev         | 3.3.0dev
 address_standardizer_data_us | 3.3.0dev         | 3.3.0dev
 postgis                      | 3.3.0dev         | 3.3.0dev
 postgis_raster               | 3.3.0dev         | 3.3.0dev
 postgis_sfcgal               | 3.3.0dev         |
 postgis_tiger_geocoder       | 3.3.0dev         | 3.3.0dev
 postgis_topology             | 3.3.0dev         |
(6 rows)

Si vous avez l'extension installée dans la base de données que vous interrogez, vous verrez la mention dans la colonne installed_version. Si vous n'obtenez aucun enregistrement , cela signifie que vous n'avez pas d'extension postgis installés sur le serveur. PgAdmin III 1.14+ fournira aussi cette information dans la section extensions dans l'arbre de l'explorateur de la base de données et autorisera même la mise à jour ou la désinstallation par clic-droit.

Si vous avez les extensions disponibles, vous pouvez installer les extensions postgis dans votre base de données de votre choix soit en utilisant l'interface d'extension de PgAdmin ou lançant ces commandes SQL :

CREATE EXTENSION postgis;
CREATE EXTENSION postgis_sfcgal;
CREATE EXTENSION fuzzystrmatch; --nécessaire pour postgis_tiger_geocoder
--utilisé optionnellement par postgis_tiger_geocoder, ou peut etre utilisé seul
CREATE EXTENSION address_standardizer;
CREATE EXTENSION address_standardizer_data_us;
CREATE EXTENSION postgis_tiger_geocoder;
CREATE EXTENSION postgis_topology;

Avec psql, vous pouvez contrôler les versions installées ainsi que les schémas d'installation.

\connect mygisdb
\x
\dx postgis*
List of installed extensions
-[ RECORD 1 ]-------------------------------------------------
-
Name        | postgis
Version     | 3.3.0dev
Schema      | public
Description | PostGIS geometry, geography, and raster spat..
-[ RECORD 2 ]-------------------------------------------------
-
Name        | postgis_tiger_geocoder
Version     | 3.3.0dev
Schema      | tiger
Description | PostGIS tiger geocoder and reverse geocoder
-[ RECORD 3 ]-------------------------------------------------
-
Name        | postgis_topology
Version     | 3.3.0dev
Schema      | topology
Description | PostGIS topology spatial types and functions
[Warning]

Les tables d'extension spatial_ref_sys, layer, topology ne peuvent pas être explicitement sauvegardé. Elles peuvent être uniquement sauvegardées quand les extensions respectives postgis ou postgis_topology sont sauvegardées, ce qui semblent seulement arrivé quand vous sauvegardez l'ensemble de la base. À partir de PostGIS 2.0.1, seulement les enregistrements des srid non packagés avec PostGIS sont sauvegardés quand la base de données est sauvegardé par conséquent ne changez pas les srids que nous fournissons et attendre que vos modifications seront encore là. Créez un ticket si vous trouvez un problème. Les structures de la table d'extension ne sont jamais sauvegardées puisque créée avec CREATE EXTENSION et supposées être identique pour la même version de l'extension. Ce comportement fait partie du modèle actuel d'extensions de PostgreSQL, nous pouvons donc rien faire à ce sujet.

Si vous avez installé la version 3.3.0dev sans avoir utilisé le système d'extensions, il est possible de l'activer en mettant d'abord à jour la version micro en lançant les scripts de mise à jour: postgis_upgrade_22_minor.sql,raster_upgrade_22_minor.sql,topology_upgrade_22_minor.sql.

CREATE EXTENSION postgis FROM unpackaged;
CREATE EXTENSION postgis_topology FROM unpackaged;
CREATE EXTENSION postgis_tiger_geocoder FROM unpackaged;

2.2.6. Tests

Si vous désirez tester la compilation de PostGIS, lancez

make check

La commande ci-dessus fonctionnera pour différentes tests de vérification et de régression en utilisant la bibliothèque générée selon la base de données actuelle.

[Note]

Si vous configurez PostGIS en utilisant une localisation non standard de PostgreSQL, GEOS, ou Proj4, vous pourrez avoir besoin d'ajouter la localisation des bibliothèques à la variable d'environnement LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

[Caution]

Pour le moment, make check repose sur les variables d'environnement PATH et PGPORT lors de la réalisation des vérifications - il n'utilise pas la version de PostgreSQL qui a pu être définie en utilisant la paramètre configuration --with-pgconfig. Assurez vous donc de modifier votre PATH pour correspondre l'installation de PostgreSQL détectée durant la configuration ou préparez vous à gérer des maux de tête inhérent.

If successful, make check will produce the output of almost 500 tests. The results will look similar to the following (numerous lines omitted below):

CUnit - A unit testing framework for C - Version 2.1-3
     http://cunit.sourceforge.net/

        .
        .
        .

Run Summary:    Type  Total    Ran Passed Failed Inactive
              suites     44     44    n/a      0        0
               tests    300    300    300      0        0
             asserts   4215   4215   4215      0      n/a
Elapsed time =    0.229 seconds

        .
        .
        .

Running tests

        .
        .
        .

Run tests: 134
Failed: 0


-- if you build with SFCGAL

        .
        .
        .

Running tests

        .
        .
        .

Run tests: 13
Failed: 0

-- if you built with raster support

        .
        .
        .

Run Summary:    Type  Total    Ran Passed Failed Inactive
              suites     12     12    n/a      0        0
               tests     65     65     65      0        0
             asserts  45896  45896  45896      0      n/a


        .
        .
        .

Running tests

        .
        .
        .

Run tests: 101
Failed: 0

-- topology regress

.
.
.

Running tests

        .
        .
        .

Run tests: 51
Failed: 0

-- if you built --with-gui, you should see this too

     CUnit - A unit testing framework for C - Version 2.1-2
     http://cunit.sourceforge.net/

        .
        .
        .

Run Summary:    Type  Total    Ran Passed Failed Inactive
              suites      2      2    n/a      0        0
               tests      4      4      4      0        0
             asserts      4      4      4      0      n/a

Les extensions postgis_tiger_geocoder et address_standardizer ne supportent actuellement que l'installcheck de PostgreSQL. Pour les tester, cf ci-dessous. Note: Il n'est pas nécessaire de lancer make install si cette commande a déjà été lancée dans le répertoire racine des sources PostGIS.

Pour l'extension address_standardize:

cd extensions/address_standardizer
make install
make installcheck
          

La sortie de la commande devrait ressembler à:

============== dropping database "contrib_regression" ==============
DROP DATABASE
============== creating database "contrib_regression" ==============
CREATE DATABASE
ALTER DATABASE
============== running regression test queries        ==============
test test-init-extensions     ... ok
test test-parseaddress        ... ok
test test-standardize_address_1 ... ok
test test-standardize_address_2 ... ok

=====================
 All 4 tests passed.
=====================

Le géocodeur tiger nécessite d'avoir les extensions postgis et fuzzystrmatch installée sur l'instance PostgreSQL. Les tests de l'extension address_standardizer seront lancés si PostGIS est compilé avec le support address_standardizer:

cd extensions/postgis_tiger_geocoder
make install
make installcheck
          

La sortie de la commande devrait ressembler à:

============== dropping database "contrib_regression" ==============
DROP DATABASE
============== creating database "contrib_regression" ==============
CREATE DATABASE
ALTER DATABASE
============== installing fuzzystrmatch               ==============
CREATE EXTENSION
============== installing postgis                     ==============
CREATE EXTENSION
============== installing postgis_tiger_geocoder      ==============
CREATE EXTENSION
============== installing address_standardizer        ==============
CREATE EXTENSION
============== running regression test queries        ==============
test test-normalize_address   ... ok
test test-pagc_normalize_address ... ok

=====================
All 2 tests passed.
=====================

2.2.7. Installation

Pour installer PostGIS, entrez

make install

Ceci copiera les fichiers d'installation de PostGIS dans leur sous-répertoires appropriés définie par le paramètre de configuration --prefix. En particulier :

  • Les binaires du chargeur et du dumper sont installés dans [prefix]/bin.

  • Les fichiers SQL, tel que postgis.sql, sont installé dans [prefix]/share/contrib.

  • Les bibliothèques PostGIS sont installées dans [prefix]/lib.

Si vous avez déjà lancé la commande make comments pour générer les fichiers postgis_comments.sql, raster_comments.sql, installer le fichier sql en lançant

make comments-install

[Note]

postgis_comments.sql, raster_comments.sql, topology_comments.sql ont été séparés de la compilation initiale et des cibles de l'installation depuis qu'ils sont dépendant de xsltproc.

2.3. Installation et utilisation de l'extension address standardize

L'extension address_standardizer était précédemment livrée sous forme d'un paquet séparé nécessitant son propre téléchargement. Depuis la version 2.2 de PostGIS, cette extension est intégrée. Pour de plus amples informations sur cette extension, sa configuration, son utilisation, se référer à Section 14.1, “Address Standardizer”.

Ce normalisateur d'adresses peut être utilisé avec l'extension PostGIS tiger en remplacement de Normalize_Address. Se référer à la page Section 2.4.3, “Utilisation de l'Extension Address Standardizer avec le Geocodeur Tiger” pour mettre en place ce remplacement. Il peut également être utilisé pour fabriquer son propre géocodeur ou pour normaliser des adresses pour les comparer plus facilement.

Le normalisateur d'adresses se base sur PCRE, généralement installé sur les systèmes Nix. Il peut également être téléchargé ici: http://www.pcre.org. Durant la phase Section 2.2.3, “Configuration”, si PCRE est détecté, le normalisateur d'adresses sera automatiquement compilé. Pour utiliser une installation personnalisée de PCRE, passer le paramètre --with-pcredir=/chemin/vers/pcre dans la commande configure, où /chemin/vers/pcre est le répertoire contenant les sous-répertoires pcre include et lib.

Pour les utilisateurs de Windows®, les versions 2.1 et supérieures de PostGIS sont livrées avec l'extension address_standardizer. Il n'est donc pas besoin de compiler cette extension. La commande CREATE EXTENSION suffit.

Une fois installée, vous pouvez vous connecter à votre base de données et lancer le SQL:

CREATE EXTENSION address_standardizer;

Le test suivant ne nécessite pas de table rules, gas, ou lex

SELECT num, street, city, state, zip
 FROM parse_address('1 Devonshire Place PH301, Boston, MA 02109');

La sortie de la commande devrait ressembler à:

num |         street         |  city  | state |  zip
-----+------------------------+--------+-------+-------
 1   | Devonshire Place PH301 | Boston | MA    | 02109

2.3.1. Installation de Regex::Assemble

Le module Perl Regex:Assemble n'est plus nécessaire lors de la compilation de l'extension address_standardizer. Les fichiers qu'il génère sont désormais contenus dans les sources. Cependant, si vous devez modifier les fichiers usps-st-city-orig.txt ou usps-st-city-orig.txt usps-st-city-adds.tx, vous devez recompiler parseaddress-stcities.h qui lui nécessite Regex:Assemble.

cpan Regexp::Assemble

ou si vous êtes sur Ubuntu / Debian, vous devrez peut-être faire

sudo perl -MCPAN -e "install Regexp::Assemble"

2.4. Installer, mettre à jour le Géocodeur Tiger et charger des données

Extras like Tiger geocoder may not be packaged in your PostGIS distribution. If you are missing the tiger geocoder extension or want a newer version than what your install comes with, then use the share/extension/postgis_tiger_geocoder.* files from the packages in Windows Unreleased Versions section for your version of PostgreSQL. Although these packages are for windows, the postgis_tiger_geocoder extension files will work on any OS since the extension is an SQL/plpgsql only extension.

2.4.1. Activation du Géocodeur TIger dans votre base de données PostGIS

Si vous utilisez une version de PostgreSQL 9.1+ et de PostGIS 2.1+ , vous pouvez installer le géocodeur grâce au mécanisme d'extension:

  1. Installez ou compilez PostGIS depuis les sources de façon normale. Ceci devrait installer également les fichiers d'extension ainsi que les le géocodeur tiger.

  2. Connectez-vous à la base de données avec psql ou PgAdmin (ou tout autre client) et lancez la commande SQL suivante. Note: Si l'installation se déroule sur une base de données contenant déjà PostGIS, la première étape n'est pas nécessaire. Si l'extension fuzzystrmatch est déjà installée, la seconde étape n'est pas nécessaire non plus.

    CREATE EXTENSION postgis;
    CREATE EXTENSION fuzzystrmatch;
    CREATE EXTENSION postgis_tiger_geocoder;
    --this one is optional if you want to use the rules based standardizer (pagc_normalize_address)
    CREATE EXTENSION address_standardizer;

    Si l'extension postgis_tiger_geocoder est installée et que vous souhaitez la mettre à jour, lancez:

    ALTER EXTENSION postgis UPDATE;
    ALTER EXTENSION postgis_tiger_geocoder UPDATE;

    Si vous avez modifié tiger.loader_platform ou tiger.loader_variables, vous devrez peut être les mettre à jour.

  3. Pour tester l'installation, lancez cette commande SQL sur la base de données:

    SELECT na.address, na.streetname,na.streettypeabbrev, na.zip
            FROM normalize_address('1 Devonshire Place, Boston, MA 02109') AS na;

    Qui devrait afficher

    address | streetname | streettypeabbrev |  zip
    ---------+------------+------------------+-------
               1 | Devonshire | Pl               | 02109
  4. Créer un nouvel enregistrement dans la table tiger.loader_platform contenant les chemins vers les exécutables et le serveur

    Par exemple, pour créer un profil nommé debbie suivant la convention sh, vous feriez:

    INSERT INTO tiger.loader_platform(os, declare_sect, pgbin, wget, unzip_command, psql, path_sep,
                       loader, environ_set_command, county_process_command)
    SELECT 'debbie', declare_sect, pgbin, wget, unzip_command, psql, path_sep,
               loader, environ_set_command, county_process_command
      FROM tiger.loader_platform
      WHERE os = 'sh';

    Et modifiez les chemins dans la colonne declare_sect pour les faire correspondre aux chemins des programmes sur le serveur Debbie

    Si vous ne modifiez pas la table loader_platform, elle contiendra des chemins par défaut pour les programmes, et vous aurez à modifier les scripts après leur génération.

  5. As of PostGIS 2.4.1 the Zip code-5 digit tabulation area zcta5 load step was revised to load current zcta5 data and is part of the Loader_Generate_Nation_Script when enabled. It is turned off by default because it takes quite a bit of time to load (20 to 60 minutes), takes up quite a bit of disk space, and is not used that often.

    To enable it, do the following:

    UPDATE tiger.loader_lookuptables SET load = true WHERE table_name = 'zcta520';

    If present the Geocode function can use it if a boundary filter is added to limit to just zips in that boundary. The Reverse_Geocode function uses it if the returned address is missing a zip, which often happens with highway reverse geocoding.

  6. Créez un répertoire nommé gisdata à la racine du serveur ou de la machine locale si le réseau entre les deux est suffisamment rapide. Ce répertoire contiendra les fichiers tiger téléchargés et traités. Pour changer ce répertoire, modifier le champs staging_fold dans la table tiger.loader_variables.

  7. Créez un répertoire nommé temp dans le répertoire gisdata (ou dans le répertoire que vous avez vous avez configuré dans le champs staging_fold. Ce répertoire contiendra les données tiger extraites

  8. Then run the Loader_Generate_Nation_Script SQL function make sure to use the name of your custom profile and copy the script to a .sh or .bat file. So for example to build the nation load:

    psql -c "SELECT Loader_Generate_Nation_Script('debbie')" -d geocoder -tA > /gisdata/nation_script_load.sh
  9. Run the generated nation load commandline scripts.

    cd /gisdata
    sh nation_script_load.sh
  10. After you are done running the nation script, you should have three tables in your tiger_data schema and they should be filled with data. Confirm you do by doing the following queries from psql or pgAdmin

    SELECT count(*) FROM tiger_data.county_all;
    count
    -------
      3233
    (1 row)
    SELECT count(*) FROM tiger_data.state_all;
    count
    -------
        56
    (1 row)
    
  11. By default the tables corresponding to bg, tract, tabblock are not loaded. These tables are not used by the geocoder but are used by folks for population statistics. If you wish to load them as part of your state loads, run the following statement to enable them.

    UPDATE tiger.loader_lookuptables SET load = true WHERE load = false AND lookup_name IN('tract', 'bg', 'tabblock');

    Alternatively you can load just these tables after loading state data using the Loader_Generate_Census_Script

  12. For each state you want to load data for, generate a state script Loader_Generate_Script.

    [Warning]

    DO NOT Generate the state script until you have already loaded the nation data, because the state script utilizes county list loaded by nation script.

  13. psql -c "SELECT Loader_Generate_Script(ARRAY['MA'], 'debbie')" -d geocoder -tA > /gisdata/ma_load.sh
  14. Lancez alors les lignes de commande générées.

    cd /gisdata
    sh ma_load.sh
  15. Après le chargement des données, ou lors d'une pause dans le chargement, il peut être utile de lancer analyze sur toutes les tables tiger pour mettre à jour les statistiques (y compris les statistiques héritées)

    SELECT install_missing_indexes();
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.addr;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.edges;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.faces;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.featnames;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.place;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.cousub;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.county;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.state;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.zip_lookup_base;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.zip_state;
    vacuum (analyze, verbose) tiger.zip_state_loc;

2.4.1.1. Convertir une installation du Géocodeur Tiger classique en une installation basée sur le modèle d'extension

Si vous avez installé l'extension tiger geocoder sans par le modèle d'extension, vous pouvez changer le type d'installation de la façon suivante:

  1. Suivez les instructions Section 2.4.5, “Mise à jour de l'installation du Géocodeur Tiger” pour une mise à jour non basée sur le modèle d'extension.

  2. Connectez-vous à la base de données avec psql ou PgAdmin et lancez la commande suivante:

    CREATE EXTENSION postgis_tiger_geocoder FROM unpackaged;

2.4.2. Activation du Géocodeur TIger dans votre base de données PostGIS Sans les Extensions

D'abord installez PostGIS en utilisant les instructions précédentes.

Si vous n'avez pas de répertoire extras, télécharger http://postgis.net/stuff/postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz

tar xvfz postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz

cd postgis-3.3.0dev/extras/tiger_geocoder

Modifier le fichier tiger_loader_2015.sql (ou le dernier fichier en date, à moins que vous ne vouliez charger une autre année) pour faire correspondre les chemins vers les exécutables, le serveur, etc. Vous pouvez aussi mettre à jour la table loader_platform une fois installée. Si vous ne modifiez pas ce fichier ou la table loader_platform, il contiendra des chemins par défaut et vous devrez modifier le script généré après avoir lancé les fonctions SQL contenues dans les scripts Loader_Generate_Nation_Script et Loader_Generate_Script

Si vous installez le géocodeur Tiger pour la première fois, modifiez le fichier create_geocode.bat si vous êtes sous Windows ou le fichier create_geocode.sh si vous êtes sous Linux/Unix/Mac OSX en y mettant les paramètres de votre serveur PostgreSQL et lancez le script correspondant depuis la ligne de commande.

Vérifiez que vous avez maintenant un schéma tiger dans votre base de données et qu'il fait partie de votre search_path. Si ce n'est pas le cas, ajoutez le avec une commande qui s'apparente à celle-ci :

ALTER DATABASE geocoder SET search_path=public, tiger;

La fonctionnalité de normalisation des adresses fonctionne plus ou moins sans données, sauf les adresses un peu complexe. Lancez ce test et vérifiez que les choses ressemblent à cela :

SELECT pprint_addy(normalize_address('202 East Fremont Street, Las Vegas, Nevada 89101')) As pretty_address;
pretty_address
---------------------------------------
202 E Fremont St, Las Vegas, NV 89101
                        

2.4.3. Utilisation de l'Extension Address Standardizer avec le Geocodeur Tiger

One of the many complaints of folks is the address normalizer function Normalize_Address function that normalizes an address for prepping before geocoding. The normalizer is far from perfect and trying to patch its imperfectness takes a vast amount of resources. As such we have integrated with another project that has a much better address standardizer engine. To use this new address_standardizer, you compile the extension as described in Section 2.3, “Installation et utilisation de l'extension address standardize” and install as an extension in your database.

Une fois que vous avez installé cette extension dans la même base de données où vous avez installé postgis_tiger_geocoder, vous pouvez utiliser Pagc_Normalize_Address à la place de Normalize_Address. Cette extension ne dépend pas de Tiger, et peut donc être utilisée avec d'autres sources de données telles que des adresses internationales. L'extension de géocodage Tiger est installée avec ses propres versions spécifiques de rules table ( tiger.pagc_rules) , gaz table (tiger.pagc_gaz), et lex table (tiger.pagc_lex). Vous pouvez les améliorer et ajouter des règles pour avoir de meilleurs résultats de géocodage pour vos besoins spécifiques.

2.4.4. Chargement des données Tiger

Les instructions pour charger les données sont disponibles sous forme plus détaillée dans extras/tiger_geocoder/tiger_2011/README. Ce chapitre indique juste les étapes générales.

Le processus de chargement télécharge les données du site web census pour respectivement les fichiers nation, état demandé, extrait les fichiers, puis charge chaque état dans son ensemble de tables état. Chaque table state hérite de la table définie dans le schéma tiger, il est suffisant d'interroger ces tables pour accéder à toutes les données et supprimer un ensemble de table state n'importe quand en utilisant Drop_State_Tables_Generate_Script si vous devez recharger un état ou si vous en avez plus besoin.

Dans l'objectif de charger des données vous avez besoin des outils suivants :

  • Un outils pour décompresser les fichiers zip du site web census.

    Pour les systèmes Unix-like : un exécutable unzip qui est habituellement installé sur la plupart des plateformes Unix-like.

    Pour Windows, 7-zip qui est un outils de compression/décompression libre, vous pouvez le récupérer à partir de http://www.7-zip.org/

  • La commande shp2pgsql qui est installé par défaut quand vous installez PostGIS.

  • wget qui est un outil de récupération de lien habituellement installé sur les systèmes Unix/Linux.

    Si vous êtes sous Windows, vous pouvez obtenir des binaires pré-compilés à partir de http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/wget.htm

If you are upgrading from tiger_2010, you'll need to first generate and run Drop_Nation_Tables_Generate_Script. Before you load any state data, you need to load the nation wide data which you do with Loader_Generate_Nation_Script. Which will generate a loader script for you. Loader_Generate_Nation_Script is a one-time step that should be done for upgrading (from 2010) and for new installs.

To load state data refer to Loader_Generate_Script to generate a data load script for your platform for the states you desire. Note that you can install these piecemeal. You don't have to load all the states you want all at once. You can load them as you need them.

Après que les états que vous désirez aient été chargé, assurez vous de lancer la commande :

SELECT install_missing_indexes();

comme décrit dans Install_Missing_Indexes.

Pour tester que les choses fonctionnent comme elles le devraient, essayez de lancer un géocodage sur une adresse de votre état en utilisant Geocode

2.4.5. Mise à jour de l'installation du Géocodeur Tiger

If you have Tiger Geocoder packaged with 2.0+ already installed, you can upgrade the functions at any time even from an interim tar ball if there are fixes you badly need. This will only work for Tiger geocoder not installed with extensions.

Si vous n'avez pas de répertoire extras, télécharger http://postgis.net/stuff/postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz

tar xvfz postgis-3.3.0dev.tar.gz

cd postgis-3.3.0dev/extras/tiger_geocoder/tiger_2011

Locate the upgrade_geocoder.bat script If you are on windows or the upgrade_geocoder.sh if you are on Linux/Unix/Mac OSX. Edit the file to have your postgis database credentials.

If you are upgrading from 2010 or 2011, make sure to unremark out the loader script line so you get the latest script for loading 2012 data.

Puis lancez le script correspondant depuis la ligne de commande

Puis supprimez toutes les tables nation et chargez les nouvelles. Générez un script de suppression avec la requête SQL comme détaillée dans Drop_Nation_Tables_Generate_Script

SELECT drop_nation_tables_generate_script();

Lancement des requêtes SQL de suppression générées.

Générez un script de chargement des pays avec la requête SELECT comme détaillé dans Loader_Generate_Nation_Script

Pour windows

SELECT loader_generate_nation_script('windows'); 

Pour unix/linux

SELECT loader_generate_nation_script('sh');

Référez vous à Section 2.4.4, “Chargement des données Tiger” pour les instructions sur la manière de lancer le script généré. Cela doit être fait qu'une fois.

[Note]

Vous pouvez avoir un mélange de tables d'état 2010/2011 et vous pouvez mettre à jour chaque état séparément. Avant la mise à jour d'un état vers 2011, vous devez d'abord supprimer les tables 2010 pour chaque état avec Drop_State_Tables_Generate_Script.

2.5. Problèmes courants pendant l'installation

Il y a plusieurs choses à vérifier quand votre installation ou mise à jour ne va pas dans la direction souhaitée.

  1. Vérifiez que vous avez installé PostgreSQL 11 ou plus récent et que vous êtes en train de compiler avec la même version du code source de PostgreSQL que la version qui fonctionne. Un mélange peut arriver lorsque votre distribution (Linux) a déjà une version de PostgreSQL installée ou que vous avez oublié que vous avez déjà installée une version. PostGIS fonctionnera uniquement avec PostgreSQL 11 ou plus récent, et des messages d'erreurs étranges et inhabituelles en résultera si vous utilisez une version plus ancienne. Pour vérifier la version de PostgreSQL qui fonctionne, connectez vous à la base en utilisant psql et lancez la requête :

    SELECT version();

    Si vous utilisez une distribution basé sur les RPM, vous pouvez vérifier l'existence de paquets pré-installés en utilisant la commande rpm comme suit : rpm -qa | grep postgresql

  2. Si votre mise à jour plante, assurez vous de la présence de PostGIS dans la nouvelle base de données.

    SELECT postgis_full_version();

Vérifiez également que le script configure a correctement détecté la localisation et la version de PostgreSQL, la bibliothèque Proj.4 et GEOS.

  1. La sortie du configure est utilisée pour générer le fichier postgis_config.h. Vérifiez que les variables POSTGIS_PGSQL_VERSION, POSTGIS_PROJ_VERSION et POSTGIS_GEOS_VERSION ont été définies correctement.

Chapter 3. Administration de PostGIS

3.1. Performance Tuning

Tuning for PostGIS performance is much like tuning for any PostgreSQL workload. The only additional consideration is that geometries and rasters are usually large, so memory-related optimizations generally have more of an impact on PostGIS than other types of PostgreSQL queries.

For general details about optimizing PostgreSQL, refer to Tuning your PostgreSQL Server.

For PostgreSQL 9.4+ configuration can be set at the server level without touching postgresql.conf or postgresql.auto.conf by using the ALTER SYSTEM command.

ALTER SYSTEM SET work_mem = '256MB';
-- this forces non-startup configs to take effect for new connections
SELECT pg_reload_conf();
-- show current setting value
-- use SHOW ALL to see all settings
SHOW work_mem;

In addition to the Postgres settings, PostGIS has some custom settings which are listed in Section 8.23, “Variables PostGIS GUC ( Grand Unified Custom Variables )”.

3.1.1. Startup

These settings are configured in postgresql.conf:

constraint_exclusion

  • Default: partition

  • This is generally used for table partitioning. The default for this is set to "partition" which is ideal for PostgreSQL 8.4 and above since it will force the planner to only analyze tables for constraint consideration if they are in an inherited hierarchy and not pay the planner penalty otherwise.

shared_buffers

  • Default: ~128MB in PostgreSQL 9.6

  • Set to about 25% to 40% of available RAM. On windows you may not be able to set as high.

max_worker_processes This setting is only available for PostgreSQL 9.4+. For PostgreSQL 9.6+ this setting has additional importance in that it controls the max number of processes you can have for parallel queries.

  • Default: 8

  • Sets the maximum number of background processes that the system can support. This parameter can only be set at server start.

3.1.2. Runtime

work_mem - sets the size of memory used for sort operations and complex queries

  • Default: 1-4MB

  • Adjust up for large dbs, complex queries, lots of RAM

  • Adjust down for many concurrent users or low RAM.

  • If you have lots of RAM and few developers:

    SET work_mem TO '256MB';

maintenance_work_mem - the memory size used for VACUUM, CREATE INDEX, etc.

  • Default: 16-64MB

  • Generally too low - ties up I/O, locks objects while swapping memory

  • Recommend 32MB to 1GB on production servers w/lots of RAM, but depends on the # of concurrent users. If you have lots of RAM and few developers:

    SET maintenance_work_mem TO '1GB';

max_parallel_workers_per_gather

This setting is only available for PostgreSQL 9.6+ and will only affect PostGIS 2.3+, since only PostGIS 2.3+ supports parallel queries. If set to higher than 0, then some queries such as those involving relation functions like ST_Intersects can use multiple processes and can run more than twice as fast when doing so. If you have a lot of processors to spare, you should change the value of this to as many processors as you have. Also make sure to bump up max_worker_processes to at least as high as this number.

  • Default: 0

  • Sets the maximum number of workers that can be started by a single Gather node. Parallel workers are taken from the pool of processes established by max_worker_processes. Note that the requested number of workers may not actually be available at run time. If this occurs, the plan will run with fewer workers than expected, which may be inefficient. Setting this value to 0, which is the default, disables parallel query execution.

3.2. Configurer la prise en charge du raster

Si vous activez la prise en charge du raster, vous devriez lire ce qui suit afin de bien la configurer.

As of PostGIS 2.1.3, out-of-db rasters and all raster drivers are disabled by default. In order to re-enable these, you need to set the following environment variables POSTGIS_GDAL_ENABLED_DRIVERS and POSTGIS_ENABLE_OUTDB_RASTERS in the server environment. For PostGIS 2.2, you can use the more cross-platform approach of setting the corresponding Section 8.23, “Variables PostGIS GUC ( Grand Unified Custom Variables )”.

Si vous souhaitez activer le raster hors connexion :

POSTGIS_ENABLE_OUTDB_RASTERS=1

Any other setting or no setting at all will disable out of db rasters.

In order to enable all GDAL drivers available in your GDAL install, set this environment variable as follows

POSTGIS_GDAL_ENABLED_DRIVERS=ENABLE_ALL

If you want to only enable specific drivers, set your environment variable as follows:

POSTGIS_GDAL_ENABLED_DRIVERS="GTiff PNG JPEG GIF XYZ"
[Note]

If you are on windows, do not quote the driver list

Setting environment variables varies depending on OS. For PostgreSQL installed on Ubuntu or Debian via apt-postgresql, the preferred way is to edit /etc/postgresql/10/main/environment where 10 refers to version of PostgreSQL and main refers to the cluster.

On windows, if you are running as a service, you can set via System variables which for Windows 7 you can get to by right-clicking on Computer->Properties Advanced System Settings or in explorer navigating to Control Panel\All Control Panel Items\System. Then clicking Advanced System Settings ->Advanced->Environment Variables and adding new system variables.

After you set the environment variables, you'll need to restart your PostgreSQL service for the changes to take effect.

3.3. Creating spatial databases

3.3.1. Spatially enable database using EXTENSION

If you are using PostgreSQL 9.1+ and have compiled and installed the extensions/postgis modules, you can turn a database into a spatial one using the EXTENSION mechanism.

Core postgis extension includes geometry, geography, spatial_ref_sys and all the functions and comments. Raster and topology are packaged as a separate extension.

Run the following SQL snippet in the database you want to enable spatially:

CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS plpgsql;
      CREATE EXTENSION postgis;
      CREATE EXTENSION postgis_raster; -- OPTIONAL
      CREATE EXTENSION postgis_topology; -- OPTIONAL

3.3.2. Spatially enable database without using EXTENSION (discouraged)

[Note]

This is generally only needed if you cannot or don't want to get PostGIS installed in the PostgreSQL extension directory (for example during testing, development or in a restricted environment).

Adding PostGIS objects and function definitions into your database is done by loading the various sql files located in [prefix]/share/contrib as specified during the build phase.

The core PostGIS objects (geometry and geography types, and their support functions) are in the postgis.sql script. Raster objects are in the rtpostgis.sql script. Topology objects are in the topology.sql script.

For a complete set of EPSG coordinate system definition identifiers, you can also load the spatial_ref_sys.sql definitions file and populate the spatial_ref_sys table. This will permit you to perform ST_Transform() operations on geometries.

If you wish to add comments to the PostGIS functions, you can find them in the postgis_comments.sql script. Comments can be viewed by simply typing \dd [function_name] from a psql terminal window.

Run the following Shell commands in your terminal:

DB=[yourdatabase]
    SCRIPTSDIR=`pg_config --sharedir`/contrib/postgis-3.2/

    # Core objects
    psql -d ${DB} -f ${SCRIPTSDIR}/postgis.sql
    psql -d ${DB} -f ${SCRIPTSDIR}/spatial_ref_sys.sql
    psql -d ${DB} -f ${SCRIPTSDIR}/postgis_comments.sql # OPTIONAL

    # Raster support (OPTIONAL)
    psql -d ${DB} -f ${SCRIPTSDIR}/rtpostgis.sql
    psql -d ${DB} -f ${SCRIPTSDIR}/raster_comments.sql # OPTIONAL

    # Topology support (OPTIONAL)
    psql -d ${DB} -f ${SCRIPTSDIR}/topology.sql
    psql -d ${DB} -f ${SCRIPTSDIR}/topology_comments.sql # OPTIONAL

3.3.3. Create a spatially-enabled database from a template

Some packaged distributions of PostGIS (in particular the Win32 installers for PostGIS >= 1.1.5) load the PostGIS functions into a template database called template_postgis. If the template_postgis database exists in your PostgreSQL installation then it is possible for users and/or applications to create spatially-enabled databases using a single command. Note that in both cases, the database user must have been granted the privilege to create new databases.

From the shell:

# createdb -T template_postgis my_spatial_db

From SQL:

postgres=# CREATE DATABASE my_spatial_db TEMPLATE=template_postgis

3.4. Upgrading spatial databases

Upgrading existing spatial databases can be tricky as it requires replacement or introduction of new PostGIS object definitions.

Unfortunately not all definitions can be easily replaced in a live database, so sometimes your best bet is a dump/reload process.

PostGIS provides a SOFT UPGRADE procedure for minor or bugfix releases, and a HARD UPGRADE procedure for major releases.

Before attempting to upgrade PostGIS, it is always worth to backup your data. If you use the -Fc flag to pg_dump you will always be able to restore the dump with a HARD UPGRADE.

3.4.1. Soft upgrade

If you installed your database using extensions, you'll need to upgrade using the extension model as well. If you installed using the old sql script way, you are advised to switch your install to extensions because the script way is no longer supported.

3.4.1.1. Soft Upgrade 9.1+ using extensions

If you originally installed PostGIS with extensions, then you need to upgrade using extensions as well. Doing a minor upgrade with extensions, is fairly painless.

If you are running PostGIS 3 or above, then you should use the PostGIS_Extensions_Upgrade function to upgrade to the latest version you have installed.

SELECT postgis_extensions_upgrade();

If you are running PostGIS 2.5 or lower, then do the following:

ALTER EXTENSION postgis UPDATE;
SELECT postgis_extensions_upgrade();
-- This second call is needed to rebundle postgis_raster extension
SELECT postgis_extensions_upgrade();

If you have multiple versions of PostGIS installed, and you don't want to upgrade to the latest, you can explicitly specify the version as follows:

ALTER EXTENSION postgis UPDATE TO "3.3.0dev";
ALTER EXTENSION postgis_topology UPDATE TO "3.3.0dev";

If you get an error notice something like:

No migration path defined for … to 3.3.0dev

Then you'll need to backup your database, create a fresh one as described in Section 3.3.1, “Spatially enable database using EXTENSION” and then restore your backup on top of this new database.

If you get a notice message like:

Version "3.3.0dev" of extension "postgis" is already installed

Then everything is already up to date and you can safely ignore it. UNLESS you're attempting to upgrade from an development version to the next (which doesn't get a new version number); in that case you can append "next" to the version string, and next time you'll need to drop the "next" suffix again:

ALTER EXTENSION postgis UPDATE TO "3.3.0devnext";
ALTER EXTENSION postgis_topology UPDATE TO "3.3.0devnext";
[Note]

If you installed PostGIS originally without a version specified, you can often skip the reinstallation of postgis extension before restoring since the backup just has CREATE EXTENSION postgis and thus picks up the newest latest version during restore.

[Note]

If you are upgrading PostGIS extension from a version prior to 3.0.0, you will have a new extension postgis_raster which you can safely drop, if you don't need raster support. You can drop as follows:

DROP EXTENSION postgis_raster;

3.4.1.2. Soft Upgrade Pre 9.1+ or without extensions

This section applies only to those who installed PostGIS not using extensions. If you have extensions and try to upgrade with this approach you'll get messages like:

can't drop … because postgis extension depends on it

NOTE: if you are moving from PostGIS 1.* to PostGIS 2.* or from PostGIS 2.* prior to r7409, you cannot use this procedure but would rather need to do a HARD UPGRADE.

After compiling and installing (make install) you should find a set of *_upgrade.sql files in the installation folders. You can list them all with:

ls `pg_config --sharedir`/contrib/postgis-3.3.0dev/*_upgrade.sql

Load them all in turn, starting from postgis_upgrade.sql.

psql -f postgis_upgrade.sql -d your_spatial_database

The same procedure applies to raster, topology and sfcgal extensions, with upgrade files named rtpostgis_upgrade.sql, topology_upgrade.sql and sfcgal_upgrade.sql respectively. If you need them:

psql -f rtpostgis_upgrade.sql -d your_spatial_database
psql -f topology_upgrade.sql -d your_spatial_database
psql -f sfcgal_upgrade.sql -d your_spatial_database

You are advised to switch to an extension based install by running

psql -c "SELECT postgis_extensions_upgrade();"
[Note]

If you can't find the postgis_upgrade.sql specific for upgrading your version you are using a version too early for a soft upgrade and need to do a HARD UPGRADE.

The PostGIS_Full_Version function should inform you about the need to run this kind of upgrade using a "procs need upgrade" message.

3.4.2. Hard upgrade

By HARD UPGRADE we mean full dump/reload of postgis-enabled databases. You need a HARD UPGRADE when PostGIS objects' internal storage changes or when SOFT UPGRADE is not possible. The Release Notes appendix reports for each version whether you need a dump/reload (HARD UPGRADE) to upgrade.

The dump/reload process is assisted by the postgis_restore.pl script which takes care of skipping from the dump all definitions which belong to PostGIS (including old ones), allowing you to restore your schemas and data into a database with PostGIS installed without getting duplicate symbol errors or bringing forward deprecated objects.

Supplementary instructions for windows users are available at Windows Hard upgrade.

The Procedure is as follows:

  1. Create a "custom-format" dump of the database you want to upgrade (let's call it olddb) include binary blobs (-b) and verbose (-v) output. The user can be the owner of the db, need not be postgres super account.

    pg_dump -h localhost -p 5432 -U postgres -Fc -b -v -f "/somepath/olddb.backup" olddb
  2. Do a fresh install of PostGIS in a new database -- we'll refer to this database as newdb. Please refer to Section 3.3.2, “Spatially enable database without using EXTENSION (discouraged)” and Section 3.3.1, “Spatially enable database using EXTENSION” for instructions on how to do this.

    The spatial_ref_sys entries found in your dump will be restored, but they will not override existing ones in spatial_ref_sys. This is to ensure that fixes in the official set will be properly propagated to restored databases. If for any reason you really want your own overrides of standard entries just don't load the spatial_ref_sys.sql file when creating the new db.

    If your database is really old or you know you've been using long deprecated functions in your views and functions, you might need to load legacy.sql for all your functions and views etc. to properly come back. Only do this if _really_ needed. Consider upgrading your views and functions before dumping instead, if possible. The deprecated functions can be later removed by loading uninstall_legacy.sql.

  3. Restore your backup into your fresh newdb database using postgis_restore.pl. Unexpected errors, if any, will be printed to the standard error stream by psql. Keep a log of those.

    perl utils/postgis_restore.pl "/somepath/olddb.backup" | psql -h localhost -p 5432 -U postgres newdb 2> errors.txt

Errors may arise in the following cases:

  1. Some of your views or functions make use of deprecated PostGIS objects. In order to fix this you may try loading legacy.sql script prior to restore or you'll have to restore to a version of PostGIS which still contains those objects and try a migration again after porting your code. If the legacy.sql way works for you, don't forget to fix your code to stop using deprecated functions and drop them loading uninstall_legacy.sql.

  2. Some custom records of spatial_ref_sys in dump file have an invalid SRID value. Valid SRID values are bigger than 0 and smaller than 999000. Values in the 999000.999999 range are reserved for internal use while values > 999999 can't be used at all. All your custom records with invalid SRIDs will be retained, with those > 999999 moved into the reserved range, but the spatial_ref_sys table would lose a check constraint guarding for that invariant to hold and possibly also its primary key ( when multiple invalid SRIDS get converted to the same reserved SRID value ).

    In order to fix this you should copy your custom SRS to a SRID with a valid value (maybe in the 910000..910999 range), convert all your tables to the new srid (see UpdateGeometrySRID), delete the invalid entry from spatial_ref_sys and re-construct the check(s) with:

    ALTER TABLE spatial_ref_sys ADD CONSTRAINT spatial_ref_sys_srid_check check (srid > 0 AND srid < 999000 );

    ALTER TABLE spatial_ref_sys ADD PRIMARY KEY(srid));

    If you are upgrading an old database containing french IGN cartography, you will have probably SRIDs out of range and you will see, when importing your database, issues like this :

     WARNING: SRID 310642222 converted to 999175 (in reserved zone)

    In this case, you can try following steps : first throw out completely the IGN from the sql which is resulting from postgis_restore.pl. So, after having run :

    perl utils/postgis_restore.pl "/somepath/olddb.backup" > olddb.sql

    run this command :

    grep -v IGNF olddb.sql > olddb-without-IGN.sql

    Create then your newdb, activate the required Postgis extensions, and insert properly the french system IGN with : this script After these operations, import your data :

    psql -h localhost -p 5432 -U postgres -d newdb -f olddb-without-IGN.sql  2> errors.txt

Chapter 4. Data Management

4.1. Spatial Data Model

4.1.1. OGC Geometry

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) developed the Simple Features Access standard (SFA) to provide a model for geospatial data. It defines the fundamental spatial type of Geometry, along with operations which manipulate and transform geometry values to perform spatial analysis tasks. PostGIS implements the OGC Geometry model as the PostgreSQL data types geometry and geography.

Geometry is an abstract type. Geometry values belong to one of its concrete subtypes which represent various kinds and dimensions of geometric shapes. These include the atomic types Point, LineString, LinearRing and Polygon, and the collection types MultiPoint, MultiLineString, MultiPolygon and GeometryCollection. The Simple Features Access - Part 1: Common architecture v1.2.1 adds subtypes for the structures PolyhedralSurface, Triangle and TIN.

Geometry models shapes in the 2-dimensional Cartesian plane. The PolyhedralSurface, Triangle, and TIN types can also represent shapes in 3-dimensional space. The size and location of shapes are specified by their coordinates. Each coordinate has a X and Y ordinate value determining its location in the plane. Shapes are constructed from points or line segments, with points specified by a single coordinate, and line segments by two coordinates.

Coordinates may contain optional Z and M ordinate values. The Z ordinate is often used to represent elevation. The M ordinate contains a measure value, which may represent time or distance. If Z or M values are present in a geometry value, they must be defined for each point in the geometry. If a geometry has Z or M ordinates the coordinate dimension is 3D; if it has both Z and M the coordinate dimension is 4D.

Geometry values are associated with a spatial reference system indicating the coordinate system in which it is embedded. The spatial reference system is identified by the geometry SRID number. The units of the X and Y axes are determined by the spatial reference system. In planar reference systems the X and Y coordinates typically represent easting and northing, while in geodetic systems they represent longitude and latitude. SRID 0 represents an infinite Cartesian plane with no units assigned to its axes. See Section 4.5, “Spatial Reference Systems”.

The geometry dimension is a property of geometry types. Point types have dimension 0, linear types have dimension 1, and polygonal types have dimension 2. Collections have the dimension of the maximum element dimension.

A geometry value may be empty. Empty values contain no vertices (for atomic geometry types) or no elements (for collections).

An important property of geometry values is their spatial extent or bounding box, which the OGC model calls envelope. This is the 2 or 3-dimensional box which encloses the coordinates of a geometry. It is an efficient way to represent a geometry's extent in coordinate space and to check whether two geometries interact.

The geometry model allows evaluating topological spatial relationships as described in Section 5.1.1, “Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model”. To support this the concepts of interior, boundary and exterior are defined for each geometry type. Geometries are topologically closed, so they always contain their boundary. The boundary is a geometry of dimension one less than that of the geometry itself.

The OGC geometry model defines validity rules for each geometry type. These rules ensure that geometry values represents realistic situations (e.g. it is possible to specify a polygon with a hole lying outside the shell, but this makes no sense geometrically and is thus invalid). PostGIS also allows storing and manipulating invalid geometry values. This allows detecting and fixing them if needed. See Section 4.4, “Geometry Validation”

4.1.1.1. Point

A Point is a 0-dimensional geometry that represents a single location in coordinate space.

POINT (1 2)
POINT Z (1 2 3)
POINT ZM (1 2 3 4)

4.1.1.2. LineString

A LineString is a 1-dimensional line formed by a contiguous sequence of line segments. Each line segment is defined by two points, with the end point of one segment forming the start point of the next segment. An OGC-valid LineString has either zero or two or more points, but PostGIS also allows single-point LineStrings. LineStrings may cross themselves (self-intersect). A LineString is closed if the start and end points are the same. A LineString is simple if it does not self-intersect.

LINESTRING (1 2, 3 4, 5 6)

4.1.1.3. LinearRing

A LinearRing is a LineString which is both closed and simple. The first and last points must be equal, and the line must not self-intersect.

LINEARRING (0 0 0, 4 0 0, 4 4 0, 0 4 0, 0 0 0)

4.1.1.4. Polygon

A Polygon is a 2-dimensional planar region, delimited by an exterior boundary (the shell) and zero or more interior boundaries (holes). Each boundary is a LinearRing.

POLYGON ((0 0 0,4 0 0,4 4 0,0 4 0,0 0 0),(1 1 0,2 1 0,2 2 0,1 2 0,1 1 0))

4.1.1.5. MultiPoint

A MultiPoint is a collection of Points.

MULTIPOINT ( (0 0), (1 2) )

4.1.1.6. MultiLineString

A MultiLineString is a collection of LineStrings. A MultiLineString is closed if each of its elements is closed.

MULTILINESTRING ( (0 0,1 1,1 2), (2 3,3 2,5 4) )

4.1.1.7. MultiPolygon

A MultiPolygon is a collection of non-overlapping, non-adjacent Polygons. Polygons in the collection may touch only at a finite number of points.

MULTIPOLYGON (((1 5, 5 5, 5 1, 1 1, 1 5)), ((6 5, 9 1, 6 1, 6 5)))

4.1.1.8. GeometryCollection

A GeometryCollection is a heterogeneous (mixed) collection of geometries.

GEOMETRYCOLLECTION ( POINT(2 3), LINESTRING(2 3, 3 4))

4.1.1.9. PolyhedralSurface

A PolyhedralSurface is a contiguous collection of patches or facets which share some edges. Each patch is a planar Polygon. If the Polygon coordinates have Z ordinates then the surface is 3-dimensional.

POLYHEDRALSURFACE Z (
  ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
  ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)),
  ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
  ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
  ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)),
  ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )

4.1.1.10. Triangle

A Triangle is a polygon defined by three distinct non-collinear vertices. Because a Triangle is a polygon it is specified by four coordinates, with the first and fourth being equal.

TRIANGLE ((0 0, 0 9, 9 0, 0 0))

4.1.1.11. TIN

A TIN is a collection of non-overlapping Triangles representing a Triangulated Irregular Network.

TIN Z ( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 0 0 0)) )

4.1.2. SQL/MM Part 3 - Curves

The ISO/IEC 13249-3 SQL Multimedia - Spatial standard (SQL/MM) extends the OGC SFA to define Geometry subtypes containing curves with circular arcs. The SQL/MM types support 3DM, 3DZ and 4D coordinates.

[Note]

All floating point comparisons within the SQL-MM implementation are performed to a specified tolerance, currently 1E-8.

4.1.2.1. CircularString

CircularString is the basic curve type, similar to a LineString in the linear world. A single arc segment is specified by three points: the start and end points (first and third) and some other point on the arc. To specify a closed circle the start and end points are the same and the middle point is the opposite point on the circle diameter (which is the center of the arc). In a sequence of arcs the end point of the previous arc is the start point of the next arc, just like the segments of a LineString. This means that a CircularString must have an odd number of points greater than 1.

CIRCULARSTRING(0 0, 1 1, 1 0)

CIRCULARSTRING(0 0, 4 0, 4 4, 0 4, 0 0)

4.1.2.2. CompoundCurve

A CompoundCurve is a single continuous curve that may contain both circular arc segments and linear segments. That means that in addition to having well-formed components, the end point of every component (except the last) must be coincident with the start point of the following component.

COMPOUNDCURVE( CIRCULARSTRING(0 0, 1 1, 1 0),(1 0, 0 1))

4.1.2.3. CurvePolygon

A CurvePolygon is like a polygon, with an outer ring and zero or more inner rings. The difference is that a ring can be a CircularString or CompoundCurve as well as a LineString.

As of PostGIS 1.4 PostGIS supports compound curves in a curve polygon.

CURVEPOLYGON(
  CIRCULARSTRING(0 0, 4 0, 4 4, 0 4, 0 0),
  (1 1, 3 3, 3 1, 1 1) )

Example: A CurvePolygon with the shell defined by a CompoundCurve containing a CircularString and a LineString, and a hole defined by a CircularString

CURVEPOLYGON(
  COMPOUNDCURVE( CIRCULARSTRING(0 0,2 0, 2 1, 2 3, 4 3),
                 (4 3, 4 5, 1 4, 0 0)),
  CIRCULARSTRING(1.7 1, 1.4 0.4, 1.6 0.4, 1.6 0.5, 1.7 1) )

4.1.2.4. MultiCurve

A MultiCurve is a collection of curves which can include LineStrings, CircularStrings or CompoundCurves.

MULTICURVE( (0 0, 5 5), CIRCULARSTRING(4 0, 4 4, 8 4))

4.1.2.5. MultiSurface

A MultiSurface is a collection of surfaces, which can be (linear) Polygons or CurvePolygons.

MULTISURFACE(
  CURVEPOLYGON(
    CIRCULARSTRING( 0 0, 4 0, 4 4, 0 4, 0 0),
    (1 1, 3 3, 3 1, 1 1)),
  ((10 10, 14 12, 11 10, 10 10), (11 11, 11.5 11, 11 11.5, 11 11)))

4.1.3. WKT and WKB

The OGC SFA specification defines two formats for representing geometry values for external use: Well-Known Text (WKT) and Well-Known Binary (WKB). Both WKT and WKB include information about the type of the object and the coordinates which define it.

Well-Known Text (WKT) provides a standard textual representation of spatial data. Examples of WKT representations of spatial objects are:

  • POINT(0 0)

  • POINT Z (0 0 0)

  • POINT ZM (0 0 0 0)

  • POINT EMPTY

  • LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,1 2)

  • LINESTRING EMPTY

  • POLYGON((0 0,4 0,4 4,0 4,0 0),(1 1, 2 1, 2 2, 1 2,1 1))

  • MULTIPOINT((0 0),(1 2))

  • MULTIPOINT Z ((0 0 0),(1 2 3))

  • MULTIPOINT EMPTY

  • MULTILINESTRING((0 0,1 1,1 2),(2 3,3 2,5 4))

  • MULTIPOLYGON(((0 0,4 0,4 4,0 4,0 0),(1 1,2 1,2 2,1 2,1 1)), ((-1 -1,-1 -2,-2 -2,-2 -1,-1 -1)))

  • GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(2 3),LINESTRING(2 3,3 4))

  • GEOMETRYCOLLECTION EMPTY

Input and output of WKT is provided by the functions ST_AsText and ST_GeomFromText:

text WKT = ST_AsText(geometry);
geometry = ST_GeomFromText(text WKT, SRID);

For example, a statement to create and insert a spatial object from WKT and a SRID is:

INSERT INTO geotable ( geom, name )
  VALUES ( ST_GeomFromText('POINT(-126.4 45.32)', 312), 'A Place');

Well-Known Binary (WKB) provides a portable, full-precision representation of spatial data as binary data (arrays of bytes). Examples of the WKB representations of spatial objects are:

  • WKT: POINT(1 1)

    WKB: 0101000000000000000000F03F000000000000F03

  • WKT: LINESTRING (2 2, 9 9)

    WKB: 0102000000020000000000000000000040000000000000004000000000000022400000000000002240

Input and output of WKB is provided by the functions ST_AsBinary and ST_GeomFromWKB:

bytea WKB = ST_AsBinary(geometry);
geometry = ST_GeomFromWKB(bytea WKB, SRID);

For example, a statement to create and insert a spatial object from WKB is:

INSERT INTO geotable ( geom, name )
  VALUES ( ST_GeomFromWKB('\x0101000000000000000000f03f000000000000f03f', 312), 'A Place');

4.2. Geometry Data Type

PostGIS implements the OGC Simple Features model by defining a PostgreSQL data type called geometry. It represents all of the geometry subtypes by using an internal type code (see GeometryType and ST_GeometryType). This allows modelling spatial features as rows of tables defined with a column of type geometry.

The geometry data type is opaque, which means that all access is done via invoking functions on geometry values. Functions allow creating geometry objects, accessing or updating all internal fields, and compute new geometry values. PostGIS supports all the functions specified in the OGC Simple feature access - Part 2: SQL option (SFS) specification, as well many others. See Chapter 8, Référence PostGIS for the full list of functions.

[Note]

PostGIS follows the SFA standard by prefixing spatial functions with "ST_". This was intended to stand for "Spatial and Temporal", but the temporal part of the standard was never developed. Instead it can be interpreted as "Spatial Type".

The SFA standard specifies that spatial objects include a Spatial Reference System identifier (SRID). The SRID is required when creating spatial objects for insertion into the database (it may be defaulted to 0). See ST_SRID and Section 4.5, “Spatial Reference Systems”

To make querying geometry efficient PostGIS defines various kinds of spatial indexes, and spatial operators to use them. See Section 4.9, “Spatial Indexes” and Section 5.2, “Using Spatial Indexes” for details.

4.2.1. PostGIS EWKB and EWKT

OGC SFA specifications initially supported only 2D geometries, and the geometry SRID is not included in the input/output representations. The OGC SFA specification 1.2.1 (which aligns with the ISO 19125 standard) adds support for 3D (ZYZ) and measured (XYM and XYZM) coordinates, but still does not include the SRID value.

Because of these limitations PostGIS defined extended EWKB and EWKT formats. They provide 3D (XYZ and XYM) and 4D (XYZM) coordinate support and include SRID information. Including all geometry information allows PostGIS to use EWKB as the format of record (e.g. in DUMP files).

EWKB and EWKT are used for the "canonical forms" of PostGIS data objects. For input, the canonical form for binary data is EWKB, and for text data either EWKB or EWKT is accepted. This allows geometry values to be created by casting a text value in either HEXEWKB or EWKT to a geometry value using ::geometry. For output, the canonical form for binary is EWKB, and for text it is HEXEWKB (hex-encoded EWKB).

For example this statement creates a geometry by casting from an EWKT text value, and outputs it using the canonical form of HEXEWKB:

SELECT 'SRID=4;POINT(0 0)'::geometry;
  geometry
  ----------------------------------------------------
  01010000200400000000000000000000000000000000000000

PostGIS EWKT output has a few differences to OGC WKT:

  • For 3DZ geometries the Z qualifier is omitted:

    OGC: POINT Z (1 2 3)

    EWKT: POINT (1 2 3)

  • For 3DM geometries the M qualifier is included:

    OGC: POINT M (1 2 3)

    EWKT: POINTM (1 2 3)

  • For 4D geometries the ZM qualifier is omitted:

    OGC: POINT ZM (1 2 3 4)

    EWKT: POINT (1 2 3 4)

EWKT avoids over-specifying dimensionality and the inconsistencies that can occur with the OGC/ISO format, such as:

  • POINT ZM (1 1)

  • POINT ZM (1 1 1)

  • POINT (1 1 1 1)

[Caution]

PostGIS extended formats are currently a superset of the OGC ones, so that every valid OGC WKB/WKT is also valid EWKB/EWKT. However, this might vary in the future, if the OGC extends a format in a way that conflicts with the PosGIS definition. Thus you SHOULD NOT rely on this compatibility!

Examples of the EWKT text representation of spatial objects are:

  • POINT(0 0 0) -- XYZ

  • SRID=32632;POINT(0 0) -- XY with SRID

  • POINTM(0 0 0) -- XYM

  • POINT(0 0 0 0) -- XYZM

  • SRID=4326;MULTIPOINTM(0 0 0,1 2 1) -- XYM avec SRID

  • MULTILINESTRING((0 0 0,1 1 0,1 2 1),(2 3 1,3 2 1,5 4 1))

  • POLYGON((0 0 0,4 0 0,4 4 0,0 4 0,0 0 0),(1 1 0,2 1 0,2 2 0,1 2 0,1 1 0))

  • MULTIPOLYGON(((0 0 0,4 0 0,4 4 0,0 4 0,0 0 0),(1 1 0,2 1 0,2 2 0,1 2 0,1 1 0)),((-1 -1 0,-1 -2 0,-2 -2 0,-2 -1 0,-1 -1 0)))

  • GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONM( POINTM(2 3 9), LINESTRINGM(2 3 4, 3 4 5) )

  • MULTICURVE( (0 0, 5 5), CIRCULARSTRING(4 0, 4 4, 8 4) )

  • POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)), ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)), ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )

  • TRIANGLE ((0 0, 0 10, 10 0, 0 0))

  • TIN( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 0 0 0)) )

Input and output using these formats is available using the following functions:

bytea EWKB = ST_AsEWKB(geometry);
text EWKT = ST_AsEWKT(geometry);
geometry = ST_GeomFromEWKB(bytea EWKB);
geometry = ST_GeomFromEWKT(text EWKT);

For example, a statement to create and insert a PostGIS spatial object using EWKT is:

INSERT INTO geotable ( geom, name )
  VALUES ( ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=312;POINTM(-126.4 45.32 15)'), 'A Place' )

4.3. Geography Data Type

The PostGIS geography data type provides native support for spatial features represented on "geographic" coordinates (sometimes called "geodetic" coordinates, or "lat/lon", or "lon/lat"). Geographic coordinates are spherical coordinates expressed in angular units (degrees).

The basis for the PostGIS geometry data type is a plane. The shortest path between two points on the plane is a straight line. That means functions on geometries (areas, distances, lengths, intersections, etc) are calculated using straight line vectors and cartesian mathematics. This makes them simpler to implement and faster to execute, but also makes them inaccurate for data on the spheroidal surface of the earth.

The PostGIS geography data type is based on a spherical model. The shortest path between two points on the sphere is a great circle arc. Functions on geographies (areas, distances, lengths, intersections, etc) are calculated using arcs on the sphere. By taking the spheroidal shape of the world into account, the functions provide more accurate results.

Because the underlying mathematics is more complicated, there are fewer functions defined for the geography type than for the geometry type. Over time, as new algorithms are added the capabilities of the geography type will expand. As a workaround one can convert back and forth between geometry and geography types.

Like the geometry data type, geography data is associated with a spatial reference system via a spatial reference system identifier (SRID). Any geodetic (long/lat based) spatial reference system defined in the spatial_ref_sys table can be used. (Prior to PostGIS 2.2, the geography type supported only WGS 84 geodetic (SRID:4326)). You can add your own custom geodetic spatial reference system as described in Section 4.5.2, “User-Defined Spatial Reference Systems”.

For all spatial reference systems the units returned by measurement functions (e.g. ST_Distance, ST_Length, ST_Perimeter, ST_Area) and for the distance argument of ST_DWithin are in meters.

4.3.1. Creating Geography Tables

You can create a table to store geography data using the CREATE TABLE SQL statement with a column of type geography. The following example creates a table with a geography column storing 2D LineStrings in the WGS84 geodetic coordinate system (SRID 4326):

CREATE TABLE global_points (
    id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
    name VARCHAR(64),
    location geography(POINT,4326)
  );

The geography type supports two optional type modifiers:

  • the spatial type modifier restricts the kind of shapes and dimensions allowed in the column. Values allowed for the spatial type are: POINT, LINESTRING, POLYGON, MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, MULTIPOLYGON, GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. The geography type does not support curves, TINS, or POLYHEDRALSURFACEs. The modifier supports coordinate dimensionality restrictions by adding suffixes: Z, M and ZM. For example, a modifier of 'LINESTRINGM' only allows linestrings with three dimensions, and treats the third dimension as a measure. Similarly, 'POINTZM' requires four dimensional (XYZM) data.

  • the SRID modifier restricts the spatial reference system SRID to a particular number. If omitted, the SRID defaults to 4326 (WGS84 geodetic), and all calculations are performed using WGS84.

Examples of creating tables with geography columns:

  • Create a table with 2D POINT geography with the default SRID 4326 (WGS84 long/lat):

    CREATE TABLE ptgeogwgs(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geog geography(POINT) );
  • Create a table with 2D POINT geography in NAD83 longlat:

    CREATE TABLE ptgeognad83(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geog geography(POINT,4269) );
  • Create a table with 3D (XYZ) POINTs and an explicit SRID of 4326:

    CREATE TABLE ptzgeogwgs84(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geog geography(POINTZ,4326) );
  • Create a table with 2D LINESTRING geography with the default SRID 4326:

    CREATE TABLE lgeog(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geog geography(LINESTRING) );
  • Create a table with 2D POLYGON geography with the SRID 4267 (NAD 1927 long lat):

    CREATE TABLE lgeognad27(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geog geography(POLYGON,4267) );

Geography fields are registered in the geography_columns system view. You can query the geography_columns view and see that the table is listed:

SELECT * FROM geography_columns;

Creating a spatial index works the same as for geometry columns. PostGIS will note that the column type is GEOGRAPHY and create an appropriate sphere-based index instead of the usual planar index used for GEOMETRY.

-- Index the test table with a spherical index
CREATE INDEX global_points_gix ON global_points USING GIST ( location );

4.3.2. Using Geography Tables

You can insert data into geography tables in the same way as geometry. Geometry data will autocast to the geography type if it has SRID 4326. The EWKT and EWKB formats can also be used to specify geography values.

-- Add some data into the test table
INSERT INTO global_points (name, location) VALUES ('Town', 'SRID=4326;POINT(-110 30)');
INSERT INTO global_points (name, location) VALUES ('Forest', 'SRID=4326;POINT(-109 29)');
INSERT INTO global_points (name, location) VALUES ('London', 'SRID=4326;POINT(0 49)');

Any geodetic (long/lat) spatial reference system listed in spatial_ref_sys table may be specified as a geography SRID. Non-geodetic coordinate systems raise an error if used.

-- NAD 83 lon/lat
SELECT 'SRID=4269;POINT(-123 34)'::geography;
                    geography
----------------------------------------------------
 0101000020AD1000000000000000C05EC00000000000004140
-- NAD27 lon/lat
SELECT 'SRID=4267;POINT(-123 34)'::geography;
                    geography
----------------------------------------------------
 0101000020AB1000000000000000C05EC00000000000004140
-- NAD83 UTM zone meters - gives an error since it is a meter-based planar projection
SELECT 'SRID=26910;POINT(-123 34)'::geography;

ERROR:  Only lon/lat coordinate systems are supported in geography.

Query and measurement functions use units of meters. So distance parameters should be expressed in meters, and return values should be expected in meters (or square meters for areas).

-- A distance query using a 1000km tolerance
SELECT name FROM global_points WHERE ST_DWithin(location, 'SRID=4326;POINT(-110 29)'::geography, 1000000);

You can see the power of geography in action by calculating how close a plane flying a great circle route from Seattle to London (LINESTRING(-122.33 47.606, 0.0 51.5)) comes to Reykjavik (POINT(-21.96 64.15)) (map the route).

The geography type calculates the true shortest distance of 122.235 km over the sphere between Reykjavik and the great circle flight path between Seattle and London.

-- Distance calculation using GEOGRAPHY
SELECT ST_Distance('LINESTRING(-122.33 47.606, 0.0 51.5)'::geography, 'POINT(-21.96 64.15)'::geography);
   st_distance
-----------------
 122235.23815667

The geometry type calculates a meaningless cartesian distance between Reykjavik and the straight line path from Seattle to London plotted on a flat map of the world. The nominal units of the result is "degrees", but the result doesn't correspond to any true angular difference between the points, so even calling them "degrees" is inaccurate.

-- Distance calculation using GEOMETRY
SELECT ST_Distance('LINESTRING(-122.33 47.606, 0.0 51.5)'::geometry, 'POINT(-21.96 64.15)'::geometry);
      st_distance
--------------------
 13.342271221453624

4.3.3. When to use the Geography data type

The geography data type allows you to store data in longitude/latitude coordinates, but at a cost: there are fewer functions defined on GEOGRAPHY than there are on GEOMETRY; those functions that are defined take more CPU time to execute.

The data type you choose should be determined by the expected working area of the application you are building. Will your data span the globe or a large continental area, or is it local to a state, county or municipality?

  • If your data is contained in a small area, you might find that choosing an appropriate projection and using GEOMETRY is the best solution, in terms of performance and functionality available.

  • If your data is global or covers a continental region, you may find that GEOGRAPHY allows you to build a system without having to worry about projection details. You store your data in longitude/latitude, and use the functions that have been defined on GEOGRAPHY.

  • If you don't understand projections, and you don't want to learn about them, and you're prepared to accept the limitations in functionality available in GEOGRAPHY, then it might be easier for you to use GEOGRAPHY than GEOMETRY. Simply load your data up as longitude/latitude and go from there.

Refer to Section 15.11, “PostGIS Function Support Matrix” for compare between what is supported for Geography vs. Geometry. For a brief listing and description of Geography functions, refer to Section 15.4, “PostGIS Geography Support Functions”

4.3.4. Geography Advanced FAQ

4.3.4.1. Do you calculate on the sphere or the spheroid?
4.3.4.2. What about the date-line and the poles?
4.3.4.3. What is the longest arc you can process?
4.3.4.4. Why is it so slow to calculate the area of Europe / Russia / insert big geographic region here ?

4.3.4.1.

Do you calculate on the sphere or the spheroid?

By default, all distance and area calculations are done on the spheroid. You should find that the results of calculations in local areas match up will with local planar results in good local projections. Over larger areas, the spheroidal calculations will be more accurate than any calculation done on a projected plane.

All the geography functions have the option of using a sphere calculation, by setting a final boolean parameter to 'FALSE'. This will somewhat speed up calculations, particularly for cases where the geometries are very simple.

4.3.4.2.

What about the date-line and the poles?

All the calculations have no conception of date-line or poles, the coordinates are spherical (longitude/latitude) so a shape that crosses the dateline is, from a calculation point of view, no different from any other shape.

4.3.4.3.

What is the longest arc you can process?

We use great circle arcs as the "interpolation line" between two points. That means any two points are actually joined up two ways, depending on which direction you travel along the great circle. All our code assumes that the points are joined by the *shorter* of the two paths along the great circle. As a consequence, shapes that have arcs of more than 180 degrees will not be correctly modelled.

4.3.4.4.

Why is it so slow to calculate the area of Europe / Russia / insert big geographic region here ?

Because the polygon is so darned huge! Big areas are bad for two reasons: their bounds are huge, so the index tends to pull the feature no matter what query you run; the number of vertices is huge, and tests (distance, containment) have to traverse the vertex list at least once and sometimes N times (with N being the number of vertices in the other candidate feature).

As with GEOMETRY, we recommend that when you have very large polygons, but are doing queries in small areas, you "denormalize" your geometric data into smaller chunks so that the index can effectively subquery parts of the object and so queries don't have to pull out the whole object every time. Please consult ST_Subdivide function documentation. Just because you *can* store all of Europe in one polygon doesn't mean you *should*.

4.4. Geometry Validation

PostGIS is compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium’s (OGC) Simple Features specification. That standard defines the concepts of geometry being simple and valid. These definitions allow the Simple Features geometry model to represent spatial objects in a consistent and unambiguous way that supports efficient computation. (Note: the OGC SF and SQL/MM have the same definitions for simple and valid.)

4.4.1. Simple Geometry

A simple geometry is one that has no anomalous geometric points, such as self intersection or self tangency.

A POINT is inherently simple as a 0-dimensional geometry object.

MULTIPOINTs are simple if no two coordinates (POINTs) are equal (have identical coordinate values).

A LINESTRING is simple if it does not pass through the same point twice, except for the endpoints. If the endpoints of a simple LineString are identical it is called closed and referred to as a Linear Ring.

(a) and (c) are simple LINESTRINGs. (b) and (d) are not simple. (c) is a closed Linear Ring.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

A MULTILINESTRING is simple only if all of its elements are simple and the only intersection between any two elements occurs at points that are on the boundaries of both elements.

(e) and (f) are simple MULTILINESTRINGs. (g) is not simple.

(e)

(f)

(g)

POLYGONs are formed from linear rings, so valid polygonal geometry is always simple.

To test if a geometry is simple use the ST_IsSimple function:

SELECT
   ST_IsSimple('LINESTRING(0 0, 100 100)') AS straight,
   ST_IsSimple('LINESTRING(0 0, 100 100, 100 0, 0 100)') AS crossing;

 straight | crossing
----------+----------
 t        | f

Generally, PostGIS functions do not require geometric arguments to be simple. Simplicity is primarily used as a basis for defining geometric validity. It is also a requirement for some kinds of spatial data models (for example, linear networks often disallow lines that cross). Multipoint and linear geometry can be made simple using ST_UnaryUnion.

4.4.2. Valid Geometry

Geometry validity primarily applies to 2-dimensional geometries (POLYGONs and MULTIPOLYGONs) . Validity is defined by rules that allow polygonal geometry to model planar areas unambiguously.

A POLYGON is valid if:

  1. the polygon boundary rings (the exterior shell ring and interior hole rings) are simple (do not cross or self-touch). Because of this a polygon cannnot have cut lines, spikes or loops. This implies that polygon holes must be represented as interior rings, rather than by the exterior ring self-touching (a so-called "inverted hole").

  2. boundary rings do not cross

  3. boundary rings may touch at points but only as a tangent (i.e. not in a line)

  4. interior rings are contained in the exterior ring

  5. the polygon interior is simply connected (i.e. the rings must not touch in a way that splits the polygon into more than one part)

(h) and (i) are valid POLYGONs. (j-m) are invalid. (j) can be represented as a valid MULTIPOLYGON.

(h)

(i)

(j)

(k)

(l)

(m)

A MULTIPOLYGON is valid if:

  1. its element POLYGONs are valid

  2. elements do not overlap (i.e. their interiors must not intersect)

  3. elements touch only at points (i.e. not along a line)

(n) is a valid MULTIPOLYGON. (o) and (p) are invalid.

(n)

(o)

(p)

These rules mean that valid polygonal geometry is also simple.

For linear geometry the only validity rule is that LINESTRINGs must have at least two points and have non-zero length (or equivalently, have at least two distinct points.) Note that non-simple (self-intersecting) lines are valid.

SELECT
   ST_IsValid('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)') AS len_nonzero,
   ST_IsValid('LINESTRING(0 0, 0 0, 0 0)') AS len_zero,
   ST_IsValid('LINESTRING(10 10, 150 150, 180 50, 20 130)') AS self_int;

 len_nonzero | len_zero | self_int
-------------+----------+----------
 t           | f        | t

POINT and MULTIPOINT geometries have no validity rules.

4.4.3. Managing Validity

PostGIS allows creating and storing both valid and invalid Geometry. This allows invalid geometry to be detected and flagged or fixed. There are also situations where the OGC validity rules are stricter than desired (examples of this are zero-length linestrings and polygons with inverted holes.)

Many of the functions provided by PostGIS rely on the assumption that geometry arguments are valid. For example, it does not make sense to calculate the area of a polygon that has a hole defined outside of the polygon, or to construct a polygon from a non-simple boundary line. Assuming valid geometric inputs allows functions to operate more efficiently, since they do not need to check for topological correctness. (Notable exceptions are that zero-length lines and polygons with inversions are generally handled correctly.) Also, most PostGIS functions produce valid geometry output if the inputs are valid. This allows PostGIS functions to be chained together safely.

If you encounter unexpected error messages when calling PostGIS functions (such as "GEOS Intersection() threw an error!"), you should first confirm that the function arguments are valid. If they are not, then consider using one of the techniques below to ensure the data you are processing is valid.

[Note]

If a function reports an error with valid inputs, then you may have found an error in either PostGIS or one of the libraries it uses, and you should report this to the PostGIS project. The same is true if a PostGIS function returns an invalid geometry for valid input.

To test if a geometry is valid use the ST_IsValid function:

SELECT ST_IsValid('POLYGON ((20 180, 180 180, 180 20, 20 20, 20 180))');
-----------------
 t

Information about the nature and location of an geometry invalidity are provided by the ST_IsValidDetail function:

SELECT valid, reason, ST_AsText(location) AS location
    FROM ST_IsValidDetail('POLYGON ((20 20, 120 190, 50 190, 170 50, 20 20))') AS t;

 valid |      reason       |                  location
-------+-------------------+---------------------------------------------
 f     | Self-intersection | POINT(91.51162790697674 141.56976744186045)

In some situations it is desirable to correct invalid geometry automatically. Use the ST_MakeValid function to do this. (ST_MakeValid is a case of a spatial function that does allow invalid input!)

By default, PostGIS does not check for validity when loading geometry, because validity testing can take a lot of CPU time for complex geometries. If you do not trust your data sources, you can enforce a validity check on your tables by adding a check constraint:

ALTER TABLE mytable
  ADD CONSTRAINT geometry_valid_check
        CHECK (ST_IsValid(geom));

4.5. Spatial Reference Systems

A Spatial Reference System (SRS) (also called a Coordinate Reference System (CRS)) defines how geometry is referenced to locations on the Earth's surface. There are three types of SRS:

  • A geodetic SRS uses angular coordinates (longitude and latitude) which map directly to the surface of the earth.

  • A projected SRS uses a mathematical projection transformation to "flatten" the surface of the spheroidal earth onto a plane. It assigns location coordinates in a way that allows direct measurement of quantities such as distance, area, and angle. The coordinate system is Cartesian, which means it has a defined origin point and two perpendicular axes (usually oriented North and East). Each projected SRS uses a stated length unit (usually metres or feet). A projected SRS may be limited in its area of applicability to avoid distortion and fit within the defined coordinate bounds.

  • A local SRS is a Cartesian coordinate system which is not referenced to the earth's surface. In PostGIS this is specified by a SRID value of 0.

There are many different spatial reference systems in use. Common SRSes are standardized in the European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG database. For convenience PostGIS (and many other spatial systems) refers to SRS definitions using an integer identifier called a SRID.

A geometry is associated with a Spatial Reference System by its SRID value, which is accessed by ST_SRID. The SRID for a geometry can be assigned using ST_SetSRID. Some geometry constructor functions allow supplying a SRID (such as ST_Point and ST_MakeEnvelope). The EWKT format supports SRIDs with the SRID=n; prefix.

Spatial functions processing pairs of geometries (such as overlay and relationship functions) require that the input geometries are in the same spatial reference system (have the same SRID). Geometry data can be transformed into a different spatial reference system using ST_Transform. Geometry returned from functions has the same SRS as the input geometries.

4.5.1. SPATIAL_REF_SYS Table

The SPATIAL_REF_SYS table used by PostGIS is an OGC-compliant database table that defines the available spatial reference systems. It holds the numeric SRIDs and textual descriptions of the coordinate systems.

The spatial_ref_sys table definition is:

CREATE TABLE spatial_ref_sys (
  srid       INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  auth_name  VARCHAR(256),
  auth_srid  INTEGER,
  srtext     VARCHAR(2048),
  proj4text  VARCHAR(2048)
)

The columns are:

srid

An integer code that uniquely identifies the Spatial Reference System (SRS) within the database.

auth_name

The name of the standard or standards body that is being cited for this reference system. For example, "EPSG" is a valid auth_name.

auth_srid

The ID of the Spatial Reference System as defined by the Authority cited in the auth_name. In the case of EPSG, this is the EPSG code.

srtext

The Well-Known Text representation of the Spatial Reference System. An example of a WKT SRS representation is:

PROJCS["NAD83 / UTM Zone 10N",
  GEOGCS["NAD83",
        DATUM["North_American_Datum_1983",
          SPHEROID["GRS 1980",6378137,298.257222101]
        ],
        PRIMEM["Greenwich",0],
        UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]
  ],
  PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"],
  PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin",0],
  PARAMETER["central_meridian",-123],
  PARAMETER["scale_factor",0.9996],
  PARAMETER["false_easting",500000],
  PARAMETER["false_northing",0],
  UNIT["metre",1]
]

For a discussion of SRS WKT, see the OGC standard Well-known text representation of coordinate reference systems.

proj4text

PostGIS uses the PROJ library to provide coordinate transformation capabilities. The proj4text column contains the PROJ coordinate definition string for a particular SRID. For example:

+proj=utm +zone=10 +ellps=clrk66 +datum=NAD27 +units=m

For more information see the PROJ web site. The spatial_ref_sys.sql file contains both srtext and proj4text definitions for all EPSG projections.

When retrieving spatial reference system definitions for use in transformations, PostGIS uses fhe following strategy:

  • If auth_name and auth_srid are present (non-NULL) use the PROJ SRS based on those entries (if one exists).

  • If srtext is present create a SRS using it, if possible.

  • If proj4text is present create a SRS using it, if possible.

4.5.2. User-Defined Spatial Reference Systems

The PostGIS spatial_ref_sys table contains over 3000 of the most common spatial reference system definitions that are handled by the PROJ projection library. But there are many coordinate systems that it does not contain. You can add SRS definitions to the table if you have the required information about the spatial reference system. Or, you can define your own custom spatial reference system if you are familiar with PROJ constructs. Keep in mind that most spatial reference systems are regional and have no meaning when used outside of the bounds they were intended for.

A resource for finding spatial reference systems not defined in the core set is http://spatialreference.org/

Some commonly used spatial reference systems are: 4326 - WGS 84 Long Lat, 4269 - NAD 83 Long Lat, 3395 - WGS 84 World Mercator, 2163 - US National Atlas Equal Area, and the 60 WGS84 UTM zones. UTM zones are one of the most ideal for measurement, but only cover 6-degree regions. (To determine which UTM zone to use for your area of interest, see the utmzone PostGIS plpgsql helper function.)

US states use State Plane spatial reference systems (meter or feet based) - usually one or 2 exists per state. Most of the meter-based ones are in the core set, but many of the feet-based ones or ESRI-created ones will need to be copied from spatialreference.org.

You can even define non-Earth-based coordinate systems, such as Mars 2000 This Mars coordinate system is non-planar (it's in degrees spheroidal), but you can use it with the geography type to obtain length and proximity measurements in meters instead of degrees.

Here is an example of loading a custom coordinate system using an unassigned SRID and the PROJ definition for a US-centric Lambert Conformal projection:

INSERT INTO spatial_ref_sys (srid, proj4text)
VALUES ( 990000,
  '+proj=lcc  +lon_0=-95 +lat_0=25 +lat_1=25 +lat_2=25 +x_0=0 +y_0=0 +datum=WGS84 +units=m +no_defs'
);

4.6. Spatial Tables

4.6.1. Créer une table spatiale

You can create a table to store geometry data using the CREATE TABLE SQL statement with a column of type geometry. The following example creates a table with a geometry column storing 2D (XY) LineStrings in the BC-Albers coordinate system (SRID 3005):

CREATE TABLE roads (
    id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
    name VARCHAR(64),
    geom geometry(LINESTRING,3005)
  );

The geometry type supports two optional type modifiers:

  • the spatial type modifier restricts the kind of shapes and dimensions allowed in the column. The value can be any of the supported geometry subtypes (e.g. POINT, LINESTRING, POLYGON, MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, MULTIPOLYGON, GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, etc). The modifier supports coordinate dimensionality restrictions by adding suffixes: Z, M and ZM. For example, a modifier of 'LINESTRINGM' allows only linestrings with three dimensions, and treats the third dimension as a measure. Similarly, 'POINTZM' requires four dimensional (XYZM) data.

  • the SRID modifier restricts the spatial reference system SRID to a particular number. If omitted, the SRID defaults to 0.

Examples of creating tables with geometry columns:

  • Create a table holding any kind of geometry with the default SRID:

    CREATE TABLE geoms(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geom geometry );
  • Create a table with 2D POINT geometry with the default SRID:

    CREATE TABLE pts(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geom geometry(POINT) );
  • Create a table with 3D (XYZ) POINTs and an explicit SRID of 3005:

    CREATE TABLE pts(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geom geometry(POINTZ,3005) );
  • Create a table with 4D (XYZM) LINESTRING geometry with the default SRID:

    CREATE TABLE lines(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geom geometry(LINESTRINGZM) );
  • Create a table with 2D POLYGON geometry with the SRID 4267 (NAD 1927 long lat):

    CREATE TABLE polys(gid serial PRIMARY KEY, geom geometry(POLYGON,4267) );

It is possible to have more than one geometry column in a table. This can be specified when the table is created, or a column can be added using the ALTER TABLE SQL statement. This example adds a column that can hold 3D LineStrings:

ALTER TABLE roads ADD COLUMN geom2 geometry(LINESTRINGZ,4326);

4.6.2. GEOMETRY_COLUMNS View

The OGC Simple Features Specification for SQL defines the GEOMETRY_COLUMNS metadata table to describe geometry table structure. In PostGIS geometry_columns is a view reading from database system catalog tables. This ensures that the spatial metadata information is always consistent with the currently defined tables and views. The view structure is:

\d geometry_columns
View "public.geometry_columns"
      Column       |          Type          | Modifiers
-------------------+------------------------+-----------
 f_table_catalog   | character varying(256) |
 f_table_schema    | character varying(256) |
 f_table_name      | character varying(256) |
 f_geometry_column | character varying(256) |
 coord_dimension   | integer                |
 srid              | integer                |
 type              | character varying(30)  |

The columns are:

f_table_catalog, f_table_schema, f_table_name

The fully qualified name of the feature table containing the geometry column. There is no PostgreSQL analogue of "catalog" so that column is left blank. For "schema" the PostgreSQL schema name is used (public is the default).

f_geometry_column

The name of the geometry column in the feature table.

coord_dimension

The coordinate dimension (2, 3 or 4) of the column.

srid

The ID of the spatial reference system used for the coordinate geometry in this table. It is a foreign key reference to the spatial_ref_sys table (see Section 4.5.1, “SPATIAL_REF_SYS Table”).

type

The type of the spatial object. To restrict the spatial column to a single type, use one of: POINT, LINESTRING, POLYGON, MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, MULTIPOLYGON, GEOMETRYCOLLECTION or corresponding XYM versions POINTM, LINESTRINGM, POLYGONM, MULTIPOINTM, MULTILINESTRINGM, MULTIPOLYGONM, GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONM. For heterogeneous (mixed-type) collections, you can use "GEOMETRY" as the type.

4.6.3. Manually Registering Geometry Columns

Two of the cases where you may need this are the case of SQL Views and bulk inserts. For bulk insert case, you can correct the registration in the geometry_columns table by constraining the column or doing an alter table. For views, you could expose using a CAST operation. Note, if your column is typmod based, the creation process would register it correctly, so no need to do anything. Also views that have no spatial function applied to the geometry will register the same as the underlying table geometry column.

-- Lets say you have a view created like this
CREATE VIEW public.vwmytablemercator AS
        SELECT gid, ST_Transform(geom, 3395) As geom, f_name
        FROM public.mytable;

-- For it to register correctly
-- You need to cast the geometry
--
DROP VIEW public.vwmytablemercator;
CREATE VIEW  public.vwmytablemercator AS
        SELECT gid, ST_Transform(geom, 3395)::geometry(Geometry, 3395) As geom, f_name
        FROM public.mytable;

-- If you know the geometry type for sure is a 2D POLYGON then you could do
DROP VIEW public.vwmytablemercator;
CREATE VIEW  public.vwmytablemercator AS
        SELECT gid, ST_Transform(geom,3395)::geometry(Polygon, 3395) As geom, f_name
        FROM public.mytable;
--Lets say you created a derivative table by doing a bulk insert
SELECT poi.gid, poi.geom, citybounds.city_name
INTO myschema.my_special_pois
FROM poi INNER JOIN citybounds ON ST_Intersects(citybounds.geom, poi.geom);

-- Create 2D index on new table
CREATE INDEX idx_myschema_myspecialpois_geom_gist
  ON myschema.my_special_pois USING gist(geom);

-- If your points are 3D points or 3M points,
-- then you might want to create an nd index instead of a 2D index
CREATE INDEX my_special_pois_geom_gist_nd
        ON my_special_pois USING gist(geom gist_geometry_ops_nd);

-- To manually register this new table's geometry column in geometry_columns.
-- Note it will also change the underlying structure of the table to
-- to make the column typmod based.
SELECT populate_geometry_columns('myschema.my_special_pois'::regclass);

-- If you are using PostGIS 2.0 and for whatever reason, you
-- you need the constraint based definition behavior
-- (such as case of inherited tables where all children do not have the same type and srid)
-- set optional use_typmod argument to false
SELECT populate_geometry_columns('myschema.my_special_pois'::regclass, false); 

Although the old-constraint based method is still supported, a constraint-based geometry column used directly in a view, will not register correctly in geometry_columns, as will a typmod one. In this example we define a column using typmod and another using constraints.

CREATE TABLE pois_ny(gid SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, poi_name text, cat text, geom geometry(POINT,4326));
SELECT AddGeometryColumn('pois_ny', 'geom_2160', 2160, 'POINT', 2, false);

If we run in psql

\d pois_ny;

We observe they are defined differently -- one is typmod, one is constraint

Table "public.pois_ny"
  Column   |         Type          |                       Modifiers

-----------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------------------
 gid       | integer               | not null default nextval('pois_ny_gid_seq'::regclass)
 poi_name  | text                  |
 cat       | character varying(20) |
 geom      | geometry(Point,4326)  |
 geom_2160 | geometry              |
Indexes:
    "pois_ny_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (gid)
Check constraints:
    "enforce_dims_geom_2160" CHECK (st_ndims(geom_2160) = 2)
    "enforce_geotype_geom_2160" CHECK (geometrytype(geom_2160) = 'POINT'::text
        OR geom_2160 IS NULL)
    "enforce_srid_geom_2160" CHECK (st_srid(geom_2160) = 2160)

In geometry_columns, they both register correctly

SELECT f_table_name, f_geometry_column, srid, type
        FROM geometry_columns
        WHERE f_table_name = 'pois_ny';
f_table_name | f_geometry_column | srid | type
-------------+-------------------+------+-------
pois_ny      | geom              | 4326 | POINT
pois_ny      | geom_2160         | 2160 | POINT

However -- if we were to create a view like this

CREATE VIEW vw_pois_ny_parks AS
SELECT *
  FROM pois_ny
  WHERE cat='park';

SELECT f_table_name, f_geometry_column, srid, type
        FROM geometry_columns
        WHERE f_table_name = 'vw_pois_ny_parks';

The typmod based geom view column registers correctly, but the constraint based one does not.

f_table_name   | f_geometry_column | srid |   type
------------------+-------------------+------+----------
 vw_pois_ny_parks | geom              | 4326 | POINT
 vw_pois_ny_parks | geom_2160         |    0 | GEOMETRY

This may change in future versions of PostGIS, but for now to force the constraint-based view column to register correctly, you need to do this:

DROP VIEW vw_pois_ny_parks;
CREATE VIEW vw_pois_ny_parks AS
SELECT gid, poi_name, cat,
  geom,
  geom_2160::geometry(POINT,2160) As geom_2160
  FROM pois_ny
  WHERE cat = 'park';
SELECT f_table_name, f_geometry_column, srid, type
        FROM geometry_columns
        WHERE f_table_name = 'vw_pois_ny_parks';
f_table_name   | f_geometry_column | srid | type
------------------+-------------------+------+-------
 vw_pois_ny_parks | geom              | 4326 | POINT
 vw_pois_ny_parks | geom_2160         | 2160 | POINT

4.7. Loading Spatial Data

Once you have created a spatial table, you are ready to upload spatial data to the database. There are two built-in ways to get spatial data into a PostGIS/PostgreSQL database: using formatted SQL statements or using the Shapefile loader.

4.7.1. Using SQL to Load Data

If spatial data can be converted to a text representation (as either WKT or WKB), then using SQL might be the easiest way to get data into PostGIS. Data can be bulk-loaded into PostGIS/PostgreSQL by loading a text file of SQL INSERT statements using the psql SQL utility.

A SQL load file (roads.sql for example) might look like this:

BEGIN;
INSERT INTO roads (road_id, roads_geom, road_name)
  VALUES (1,'LINESTRING(191232 243118,191108 243242)','Jeff Rd');
INSERT INTO roads (road_id, roads_geom, road_name)
  VALUES (2,'LINESTRING(189141 244158,189265 244817)','Geordie Rd');
INSERT INTO roads (road_id, roads_geom, road_name)
  VALUES (3,'LINESTRING(192783 228138,192612 229814)','Paul St');
INSERT INTO roads (road_id, roads_geom, road_name)
  VALUES (4,'LINESTRING(189412 252431,189631 259122)','Graeme Ave');
INSERT INTO roads (road_id, roads_geom, road_name)
  VALUES (5,'LINESTRING(190131 224148,190871 228134)','Phil Tce');
INSERT INTO roads (road_id, roads_geom, road_name)
  VALUES (6,'LINESTRING(198231 263418,198213 268322)','Dave Cres');
COMMIT;

The SQL file can be loaded into PostgreSQL using psql:

psql -d [database] -f roads.sql

4.7.2. Using the Shapefile Loader

The shp2pgsql data loader converts Shapefiles into SQL suitable for insertion into a PostGIS/PostgreSQL database either in geometry or geography format. The loader has several operating modes selected by command line flags.

There is also a shp2pgsql-gui graphical interface with most of the options as the command-line loader. This may be easier to use for one-off non-scripted loading or if you are new to PostGIS. It can also be configured as a plugin to PgAdminIII.

(c|a|d|p) These are mutually exclusive options:

-c

Creates a new table and populates it from the Shapefile. This is the default mode.

-a

Appends data from the Shapefile into the database table. Note that to use this option to load multiple files, the files must have the same attributes and same data types.

-d

Drops the database table before creating a new table with the data in the Shapefile.

-p

Only produces the table creation SQL code, without adding any actual data. This can be used if you need to completely separate the table creation and data loading steps.

-?

Display help screen.

-D

Use the PostgreSQL "dump" format for the output data. This can be combined with -a, -c and -d. It is much faster to load than the default "insert" SQL format. Use this for very large data sets.

-s [<FROM_SRID>:]<SRID>

Creates and populates the geometry tables with the specified SRID. Optionally specifies that the input shapefile uses the given FROM_SRID, in which case the geometries will be reprojected to the target SRID.

-k

Keep identifiers' case (column, schema and attributes). Note that attributes in Shapefile are all UPPERCASE.

-i

Coerce all integers to standard 32-bit integers, do not create 64-bit bigints, even if the DBF header signature appears to warrant it.

-I

Create a GiST index on the geometry column.

-m

-m a_file_name Specify a file containing a set of mappings of (long) column names to 10 character DBF column names. The content of the file is one or more lines of two names separated by white space and no trailing or leading space. For example:

COLUMNNAME DBFFIELD1
AVERYLONGCOLUMNNAME DBFFIELD2

-S

Generate simple geometries instead of MULTI geometries. Will only succeed if all the geometries are actually single (I.E. a MULTIPOLYGON with a single shell, or or a MULTIPOINT with a single vertex).

-t <dimensionality>

Force the output geometry to have the specified dimensionality. Use the following strings to indicate the dimensionality: 2D, 3DZ, 3DM, 4D.

If the input has fewer dimensions that specified, the output will have those dimensions filled in with zeroes. If the input has more dimensions that specified, the unwanted dimensions will be stripped.

-w

Output WKT format, instead of WKB. Note that this can introduce coordinate drifts due to loss of precision.

-e

Execute each statement on its own, without using a transaction. This allows loading of the majority of good data when there are some bad geometries that generate errors. Note that this cannot be used with the -D flag as the "dump" format always uses a transaction.

-W <encoding>

Specify encoding of the input data (dbf file). When used, all attributes of the dbf are converted from the specified encoding to UTF8. The resulting SQL output will contain a SET CLIENT_ENCODING to UTF8 command, so that the backend will be able to reconvert from UTF8 to whatever encoding the database is configured to use internally.

-N <policy>

NULL geometries handling policy (insert*,skip,abort)

-n

-n Only import DBF file. If your data has no corresponding shapefile, it will automatically switch to this mode and load just the dbf. So setting this flag is only needed if you have a full shapefile set, and you only want the attribute data and no geometry.

-G

Use geography type instead of geometry (requires lon/lat data) in WGS84 long lat (SRID=4326)

-T <tablespace>

Specify the tablespace for the new table. Indexes will still use the default tablespace unless the -X parameter is also used. The PostgreSQL documentation has a good description on when to use custom tablespaces.

-X <tablespace>

Specify the tablespace for the new table's indexes. This applies to the primary key index, and the GIST spatial index if -I is also used.

-Z

When used, this flag will prevent the generation of ANALYZE statements. Without the -Z flag (default behavior), the ANALYZE statements will be generated.

An example session using the loader to create an input file and loading it might look like this:

# shp2pgsql -c -D -s 4269 -i -I shaperoads.shp myschema.roadstable > roads.sql
# psql -d roadsdb -f roads.sql

A conversion and load can be done in one step using UNIX pipes:

# shp2pgsql shaperoads.shp myschema.roadstable | psql -d roadsdb

4.8. Extracting Spatial Data

Spatial data can be extracted from the database using either SQL or the Shapefile dumper. The section on SQL presents some of the functions available to do comparisons and queries on spatial tables.

4.8.1. Using SQL to Extract Data

The most straightforward way of extracting spatial data out of the database is to use a SQL SELECT query to define the data set to be extracted and dump the resulting columns into a parsable text file:

db=# SELECT road_id, ST_AsText(road_geom) AS geom, road_name FROM roads;

road_id | geom                                    | road_name
--------+-----------------------------------------+-----------
          1 | LINESTRING(191232 243118,191108 243242) | Jeff Rd
          2 | LINESTRING(189141 244158,189265 244817) | Geordie Rd
          3 | LINESTRING(192783 228138,192612 229814) | Paul St
          4 | LINESTRING(189412 252431,189631 259122) | Graeme Ave
          5 | LINESTRING(190131 224148,190871 228134) | Phil Tce
          6 | LINESTRING(198231 263418,198213 268322) | Dave Cres
          7 | LINESTRING(218421 284121,224123 241231) | Chris Way
(6 rows)

There will be times when some kind of restriction is necessary to cut down the number of records returned. In the case of attribute-based restrictions, use the same SQL syntax as used with a non-spatial table. In the case of spatial restrictions, the following functions are useful:

ST_Intersects

This function tells whether two geometries share any space.

=

This tests whether two geometries are geometrically identical. For example, if 'POLYGON((0 0,1 1,1 0,0 0))' is the same as 'POLYGON((0 0,1 1,1 0,0 0))' (it is).

Next, you can use these operators in queries. Note that when specifying geometries and boxes on the SQL command line, you must explicitly turn the string representations into geometries function. The 312 is a fictitious spatial reference system that matches our data. So, for example:

SELECT road_id, road_name
  FROM roads
  WHERE roads_geom='SRID=312;LINESTRING(191232 243118,191108 243242)'::geometry;

The above query would return the single record from the "ROADS_GEOM" table in which the geometry was equal to that value.

To check whether some of the roads passes in the area defined by a polygon:

SELECT road_id, road_name
FROM roads
WHERE ST_Intersects(roads_geom, 'SRID=312;POLYGON((...))');

The most common spatial query will probably be a "frame-based" query, used by client software, like data browsers and web mappers, to grab a "map frame" worth of data for display.

When using the "&&" operator, you can specify either a BOX3D as the comparison feature or a GEOMETRY. When you specify a GEOMETRY, however, its bounding box will be used for the comparison.

Using a "BOX3D" object for the frame, such a query looks like this:

SELECT ST_AsText(roads_geom) AS geom
FROM roads
WHERE
  roads_geom && ST_MakeEnvelope(191232, 243117,191232, 243119,312);

Note the use of the SRID 312, to specify the projection of the envelope.

4.8.2. Using the Shapefile Dumper

The pgsql2shp table dumper connects to the database and converts a table (possibly defined by a query) into a shape file. The basic syntax is:

pgsql2shp [<options>] <database> [<schema>.]<table>
pgsql2shp [<options>] <database> <query>

The commandline options are:

-f <filename>

Write the output to a particular filename.

-h <host>

The database host to connect to.

-p <port>

The port to connect to on the database host.

-P <password>

The password to use when connecting to the database.

-u <user>

The username to use when connecting to the database.

-g <geometry column>

In the case of tables with multiple geometry columns, the geometry column to use when writing the shape file.

-b

Use a binary cursor. This will make the operation faster, but will not work if any NON-geometry attribute in the table lacks a cast to text.

-r

Raw mode. Do not drop the gid field, or escape column names.

-m filename

Remap identifiers to ten character names. The content of the file is lines of two symbols separated by a single white space and no trailing or leading space: VERYLONGSYMBOL SHORTONE ANOTHERVERYLONGSYMBOL SHORTER etc.

4.9. Spatial Indexes

Spatial indexes make using a spatial database for large data sets possible. Without indexing, a search for features requires a sequential scan of every record in the database. Indexing speeds up searching by organizing the data into a structure which can be quickly traversed to find matching records.

The B-tree index method commonly used for attribute data is not very useful for spatial data, since it only supports storing and querying data in a single dimension. Data such as geometry (which has 2 or more dimensions) requires an index method that supports range query across all the data dimensions. One of the key advantages of PostgreSQL for spatial data handling is that it offers several kinds of index methods which work well for multi-dimensional data: GiST, BRIN and SP-GiST indexes.

  • GiST (Generalized Search Tree) indexes break up data into "things to one side", "things which overlap", "things which are inside" and can be used on a wide range of data-types, including GIS data. PostGIS uses an R-Tree index implemented on top of GiST to index spatial data. GiST is the most commonly-used and versatile spatial index method, and offers very good query performance.

  • BRIN (Block Range Index) indexes operate by summarizing the spatial extent of ranges of table records. Search is done via a scan of the ranges. BRIN is only appropriate for use for some kinds of data (spatially sorted, with infrequent or no update). But it provides much faster index create time, and much smaller index size.

  • SP-GiST (Space-Partitioned Generalized Search Tree) is a generic index method that supports partitioned search trees such as quad-trees, k-d trees, and radix trees (tries).

Spatial indexes store only the bounding box of geometries. Spatial queries use the index as a primary filter to quickly determine a set of geometries potentially matching the query condition. Most spatial queries require a secondary filter that uses a spatial predicate function to test a more specific spatial condition. For more information on queying with spatial predicates see Section 5.2, “Using Spatial Indexes”.

See also the PostGIS Workshop section on spatial indexes, and the PostgreSQL manual.

4.9.1. GiST Indexes

GiST stands for "Generalized Search Tree" and is a generic form of indexing for multi-dimensional data. PostGIS uses an R-Tree index implemented on top of GiST to index spatial data. GiST is the most commonly-used and versatile spatial index method, and offers very good query performance. Other implementations of GiST are used to speed up searches on all kinds of irregular data structures (integer arrays, spectral data, etc) which are not amenable to normal B-Tree indexing. For more information see the PostgreSQL manual.

Once a spatial data table exceeds a few thousand rows, you will want to build an index to speed up spatial searches of the data (unless all your searches are based on attributes, in which case you'll want to build a normal index on the attribute fields).

The syntax for building a GiST index on a "geometry" column is as follows:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename] USING GIST ( [geometryfield] ); 

The above syntax will always build a 2D-index. To get the an n-dimensional index for the geometry type, you can create one using this syntax:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename] USING GIST ([geometryfield] gist_geometry_ops_nd);

Building a spatial index is a computationally intensive exercise. It also blocks write access to your table for the time it creates, so on a production system you may want to do in in a slower CONCURRENTLY-aware way:

CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY [indexname] ON [tablename] USING GIST ( [geometryfield] ); 

After building an index, it is sometimes helpful to force PostgreSQL to collect table statistics, which are used to optimize query plans:

VACUUM ANALYZE [table_name] [(column_name)];

4.9.2. BRIN Indexes

BRIN stands for "Block Range Index". It is a general-purpose index method introduced in PostgreSQL 9.5. BRIN is a lossy index method, meaning that a secondary check is required to confirm that a record matches a given search condition (which is the case for all provided spatial indexes). It provides much faster index creation and much smaller index size, with reasonable read performance. Its primary purpose is to support indexing very large tables on columns which have a correlation with their physical location within the table. In addition to spatial indexing, BRIN can speed up searches on various kinds of attribute data structures (integer, arrays etc). For more information see the PostgreSQL manual.

Once a spatial table exceeds a few thousand rows, you will want to build an index to speed up spatial searches of the data. GiST indexes are very performant as long as their size doesn't exceed the amount of RAM available for the database, and as long as you can afford the index storage size, and the cost of index update on write. Otherwise, for very large tables BRIN index can be considered as an alternative.

A BRIN index stores the bounding box enclosing all the geometries contained in the rows in a contiguous set of table blocks, called a block range. When executing a query using the index the block ranges are scanned to find the ones that intersect the query extent. This is efficient only if the data is physically ordered so that the bounding boxes for block ranges have minimal overlap (and ideally are mutually exclusive). The resulting index is very small in size, but is typically less performant for read than a GiST index over the same data.

Building a BRIN index is much less CPU-intensive than building a GiST index. It's common to find that a BRIN index is ten times faster to build than a GiST index over the same data. And because a BRIN index stores only one bounding box for each range of table blocks, it's common to use up to a thousand times less disk space than a GiST index.

You can choose the number of blocks to summarize in a range. If you decrease this number, the index will be bigger but will probably provide better performance.

For BRIN to be effective, the table data should be stored in a physical order which minimizes the amount of block extent overlap. It may be that the data is already sorted appropriately (for instance, if it is loaded from another dataset that is already sorted in spatial order). Otherwise, this can be accomplished by sorting the data by a one-dimensional spatial key. One way to do this is to create a new table sorted by the geometry values (which in recent PostGIS versions uses an efficient Hilbert curve ordering):

CREATE TABLE table_sorted AS
   SELECT * FROM table  ORDER BY geom;

Alternatively, data can be sorted in-place by using a GeoHash as a (temporary) index, and clustering on that index:

CREATE INDEX idx_temp_geohash ON table
    USING btree (ST_GeoHash( ST_Transform( geom, 4326 ), 20));
CLUSTER table USING idx_temp_geohash;

The syntax for building a BRIN index on a geometry column is:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename] USING BRIN ( [geome_col] ); 

The above syntax builds a 2D index. To build a 3D-dimensional index, use this syntax:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename]
    USING BRIN ([geome_col] brin_geometry_inclusion_ops_3d);

You can also get a 4D-dimensional index using the 4D operator class:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename]
    USING BRIN ([geome_col] brin_geometry_inclusion_ops_4d);

The above commands use the default number of blocks in a range, which is 128. To specify the number of blocks to summarise in a range, use this syntax

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename]
    USING BRIN ( [geome_col] ) WITH (pages_per_range = [number]); 

Keep in mind that a BRIN index only stores one index entry for a large number of rows. If your table stores geometries with a mixed number of dimensions, it's likely that the resulting index will have poor performance. You can avoid this performance penalty by choosing the operator class with the least number of dimensions of the stored geometries

The geography datatype is supported for BRIN indexing. The syntax for building a BRIN index on a geography column is:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename] USING BRIN ( [geog_col] ); 

The above syntax builds a 2D-index for geospatial objects on the spheroid.

Currently, only "inclusion support" is provided, meaning that just the &&, ~ and @ operators can be used for the 2D cases (for both geometry and geography), and just the &&& operator for 3D geometries. There is currently no support for kNN searches.

An important difference between BRIN and other index types is that the database does not maintain the index dynamically. Changes to spatial data in the table are simply appended to the end of the index. This will cause index search performance to degrade over time. The index can be updated by performing a VACUUM, or by using a special function brin_summarize_new_values(regclass). For this reason BRIN may be most appropriate for use with data that is read-only, or only rarely changing. For more information refer to the manual.

To summarize using BRIN for spatial data:

  • Index build time is very fast, and index size is very small.

  • Index query time is slower than GiST, but can still be very acceptable.

  • Requires table data to be sorted in a spatial ordering.

  • Requires manual index maintenance.

  • Most appropriate for very large tables, with low or no overlap (e.g. points), which are static or change infrequently.

  • More effective for queries which return relatively large numbers of data records.

4.9.3. SP-GiST Indexes

SP-GiST stands for "Space-Partitioned Generalized Search Tree" and is a generic form of indexing for multi-dimensional data types that supports partitioned search trees, such as quad-trees, k-d trees, and radix trees (tries). The common feature of these data structures is that they repeatedly divide the search space into partitions that need not be of equal size. In addition to spatial indexing, SP-GiST is used to speed up searches on many kinds of data, such as phone routing, ip routing, substring search, etc. For more information see the PostgreSQL manual.

As it is the case for GiST indexes, SP-GiST indexes are lossy, in the sense that they store the bounding box enclosing spatial objects. SP-GiST indexes can be considered as an alternative to GiST indexes.

Once a GIS data table exceeds a few thousand rows, an SP-GiST index may be used to speed up spatial searches of the data. The syntax for building an SP-GiST index on a "geometry" column is as follows:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename] USING SPGIST ( [geometryfield] ); 

The above syntax will build a 2-dimensional index. A 3-dimensional index for the geometry type can be created using the 3D operator class:

CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename] USING SPGIST ([geometryfield] spgist_geometry_ops_3d);

Building a spatial index is a computationally intensive operation. It also blocks write access to your table for the time it creates, so on a production system you may want to do in in a slower CONCURRENTLY-aware way:

CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY [indexname] ON [tablename] USING SPGIST ( [geometryfield] ); 

After building an index, it is sometimes helpful to force PostgreSQL to collect table statistics, which are used to optimize query plans:

VACUUM ANALYZE [table_name] [(column_name)];

An SP-GiST index can accelerate queries involving the following operators:

  • <<, &<, &>, >>, <<|, &<|, |&>, |>>, &&, @>, <@, and ~=, for 2-dimensional indexes,

  • &/&, ~==, @>>, and <<@, for 3-dimensional indexes.

There is no support for kNN searches at the moment.

4.9.4. Tuning Index Usage

Ordinarily, indexes invisibly speed up data access: once an index is built, the PostgreSQL query planner automatically decides when to use it to improve query performance. But there are some situations where the planner does not choose to use existing indexes, so queries end up using slow sequential scans instead of a spatial index.

If you find your spatial indexes are not being used, there are a few things you can do:

  • Examine the query plan and check your query actually computes the thing you need. An erroneous JOIN, either forgotten or to the wrong table, can unexpectedly retrieve table records multiple times. To get the query plan, execute with EXPLAIN in front of the query.

  • Make sure statistics are gathered about the number and distributions of values in a table, to provide the query planner with better information to make decisions around index usage. VACUUM ANALYZE will compute both.

    You should regularly vacuum your databases anyways. Many PostgreSQL DBAs run VACUUM as an off-peak cron job on a regular basis.

  • If vacuuming does not help, you can temporarily force the planner to use the index information by using the command SET ENABLE_SEQSCAN TO OFF;. This way you can check whether the planner is at all able to generate an index-accelerated query plan for your query. You should only use this command for debugging; generally speaking, the planner knows better than you do about when to use indexes. Once you have run your query, do not forget to run SET ENABLE_SEQSCAN TO ON; so that the planner will operate normally for other queries.

  • If SET ENABLE_SEQSCAN TO OFF; helps your query to run faster, your Postgres is likely not tuned for your hardware. If you find the planner wrong about the cost of sequential versus index scans try reducing the value of RANDOM_PAGE_COST in postgresql.conf, or use SET RANDOM_PAGE_COST TO 1.1;. The default value for RANDOM_PAGE_COST is 4.0. Try setting it to 1.1 (for SSD) or 2.0 (for fast magnetic disks). Decreasing the value makes the planner more likely to use index scans.

  • If SET ENABLE_SEQSCAN TO OFF; does not help your query, the query may be using a SQL construct that the Postgres planner is not yet able to optimize. It may be possible to rewrite the query in a way that the planner is able to handle. For example, a subquery with an inline SELECT may not produce an efficient plan, but could possibly be rewritten using a LATERAL JOIN.

For more information see the Postgres manual section on Query Planning.

Chapter 5. Requêtes spatiales

La raison d'être des bases de données spatiales est de réaliser à l'intérieur de la base de données des requêtes qui normalement nécessiteraient des fonctionnalités d'un SIG Desktop. Utiliser PostGIS requiert en effet la connaissance de quelles fonctions spatiales sont disponibles, comment les utiliser dans une requête, et de s'assurer de la mise en place adéquate des index, pour une bonne performance.

5.1. Déterminer les relations spatiales

Les relations spatiales indiquent comment deux géométries interagissent l'une avec l'autre. Elles constituent une fonctionnalité fondamentale pour effectuer des requêtes sur des géométries.

5.1.1. Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model

According to the OpenGIS Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL, "the basic approach to comparing two geometries is to make pair-wise tests of the intersections between the Interiors, Boundaries and Exteriors of the two geometries and to classify the relationship between the two geometries based on the entries in the resulting 'intersection' matrix."

In the theory of point-set topology, the points in a geometry embedded in 2-dimensional space are categorized into three sets:

Boundary

The boundary of a geometry is the set of geometries of the next lower dimension. For POINTs, which have a dimension of 0, the boundary is the empty set. The boundary of a LINESTRING is the two endpoints. For POLYGONs, the boundary is the linework of the exterior and interior rings.

Interior

The interior of a geometry are those points of a geometry that are not in the boundary. For POINTs, the interior is the point itself. The interior of a LINESTRING is the set of points between the endpoints. For POLYGONs, the interior is the areal surface inside the polygon.

Exterior

The exterior of a geometry is the rest of the space in which the geometry is embedded; in other words, all points not in the interior or on the boundary of the geometry. It is a 2-dimensional non-closed surface.

The Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model (DE-9IM) describes the spatial relationship between two geometries by specifying the dimensions of the 9 intersections between the above sets for each geometry. The intersection dimensions can be formally represented in a 3x3 intersection matrix.

For a geometry g the Interior, Boundary, and Exterior are denoted using the notation I(g), B(g), and E(g). Also, dim(s) denotes the dimension of a set s with the domain of {0,1,2,F}:

  • 0 => point

  • 1 => ligne

  • 2 => area

  • F => empty set

Using this notation, the intersection matrix for two geometries a and b is:

 InteriorBoundaryExterior
Interiordim( I(a) ∩ I(b) )dim( I(a) ∩ B(b) )dim( I(a) ∩ E(b) )
Boundarydim( B(a) ∩ I(b) )dim( B(a) ∩ B(b) )dim( B(a) ∩ E(b) )
Exteriordim( E(a) ∩ I(b) )dim( E(a) ∩ B(b) )dim( E(a) ∩ E(b) )

Visually, for two overlapping polygonal geometries, this looks like:

 

 InteriorBoundaryExterior
Interior

dim( I(a) ∩ I(b) ) = 2

dim( I(a) ∩ B(b) = 1

dim( I(a) ∩ E(b) ) = 2

Boundary

dim( B(a) ∩ I(b) ) = 1

dim( B(a) ∩ B(b) ) = 0

dim( B(a) ∩ E(b) ) = 1

Exterior

dim( E(a) ∩ I(b) ) = 2

dim( E(a) ∩ B(b) ) = 1

dim( E(a) ∩ E(b) = 2

Reading from left to right and top to bottom, the intersection matrix is represented as the text string '212101212'.

For more information, refer to:

5.1.2. Named Spatial Relationships

To make it easy to determine common spatial relationships, the OGC SFS defines a set of named spatial relationship predicates. PostGIS provides these as the functions ST_Contains, ST_Crosses, ST_Disjoint, ST_Equals, ST_Intersects, ST_Overlaps, ST_Touches, ST_Within. It also defines the non-standard relationship predicates ST_Covers, ST_CoveredBy, and ST_ContainsProperly.

Spatial predicates are usually used as conditions in SQL WHERE or JOIN clauses. The named spatial predicates automatically use a spatial index if one is available, so there is no need to use the bounding box operator && as well. For example:

SELECT city.name, state.name, city.geom
FROM city JOIN state ON ST_Intersects(city.geom, state.geom);

For more details and illustrations, see the PostGIS Workshop.

5.1.3. General Spatial Relationships

In some cases the named spatial relationships are insufficient to provide a desired spatial filter condition.

For example, consider a linear dataset representing a road network. It may be required to identify all road segments that cross each other, not at a point, but in a line (perhaps to validate some business rule). In this case ST_Crosses does not provide the necessary spatial filter, since for linear features it returns true only where they cross at a point.

A two-step solution would be to first compute the actual intersection (ST_Intersection) of pairs of road lines that spatially intersect (ST_Intersects), and then check if the intersection's ST_GeometryType is 'LINESTRING' (properly dealing with cases that return GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONs of [MULTI]POINTs, [MULTI]LINESTRINGs, etc.).

Clearly, a simpler and faster solution is desirable.

A second example is locating wharves that intersect a lake's boundary on a line and where one end of the wharf is up on shore. In other words, where a wharf is within but not completely contained by a lake, intersects the boundary of a lake on a line, and where exactly one of the wharf's endpoints is within or on the boundary of the lake. It is possible to use a combination of spatial predicates to find the required features:

These requirements can be met by computing the full DE-9IM intersection matrix. PostGIS provides the ST_Relate function to do this:

SELECT ST_Relate( 'LINESTRING (1 1, 5 5)',
                  'POLYGON ((3 3, 3 7, 7 7, 7 3, 3 3))' );
st_relate
-----------
1010F0212

To test a particular spatial relationship, an intersection matrix pattern is used. This is the matrix representation augmented with the additional symbols {T,*}:

  • T => intersection dimension is non-empty; i.e. is in {0,1,2}

  • * => don't care

Using intersection matrix patterns, specific spatial relationships can be evaluated in a more succinct way. The ST_Relate and the ST_RelateMatch functions can be used to test intersection matrix patterns. For the first example above, the intersection matrix pattern specifying two lines intersecting in a line is '1*1***1**':

-- Find road segments that intersect in a line
SELECT a.id
FROM roads a, roads b
WHERE a.id != b.id
      AND a.geom && b.geom
      AND ST_Relate(a.geom, b.geom, '1*1***1**');

For the second example, the intersection matrix pattern specifying a line partly inside and partly outside a polygon is '102101FF2':

-- Find wharves partly on a lake's shoreline
SELECT a.lake_id, b.wharf_id
FROM lakes a, wharfs b
WHERE a.geom && b.geom
      AND ST_Relate(a.geom, b.geom, '102101FF2');

5.2. Using Spatial Indexes

When constructing queries using spatial conditions, for best performance it is important to ensure that a spatial index is used, if one exists (see Section 4.9, “Spatial Indexes”). To do this, a spatial operator or index-aware function must be used in a WHERE or ON clause of the query.

Spatial operators include the bounding box operators (of which the most commonly used is &&; see Section 8.10.1, “Bounding Box Operators” for the full list) and the distance operators used in nearest-neighbor queries (the most common being <->; see Section 8.10.2, “Opérateurs” for the full list.)

Index-aware functions automatically add a bounding box operator to the spatial condition. Index-aware functions include the named spatial relationship predicates ST_Contains, ST_ContainsProperly, ST_CoveredBy, ST_Covers, ST_Crosses, ST_Intersects, ST_Overlaps, ST_Touches, ST_Within, ST_Within, and ST_3DIntersects, and the distance predicates ST_DWithin, ST_DFullyWithin, ST_3DDFullyWithin, and ST_3DDWithin .)

Functions such as ST_Distance do not use indexes to optimize their operation. For example, the following query would be quite slow on a large table:

SELECT geom
FROM geom_table
WHERE ST_Distance( geom, 'SRID=312;POINT(100000 200000)' ) < 100

This query selects all the geometries in geom_table which are within 100 units of the point (100000, 200000). It will be slow because it is calculating the distance between each point in the table and the specified point, ie. one ST_Distance() calculation is computed for every row in the table.

The number of rows processed can be reduced substantially by using the index-aware function ST_DWithin:

SELECT geom
FROM geom_table
WHERE ST_DWithin( geom, 'SRID=312;POINT(100000 200000)', 100 )

This query selects the same geometries, but it does it in a more efficient way. This is enabled by ST_DWithin() using the && operator internally on an expanded bounding box of the query geometry. If there is a spatial index on geom, the query planner will recognize that it can use the index to reduce the number of rows scanned before calculating the distance. The spatial index allows retrieving only records with geometries whose bounding boxes overlap the expanded extent and hence which might be within the required distance. The actual distance is then computed to confirm whether to include the record in the result set.

For more information and examples see the PostGIS Workshop.

5.3. Examples of Spatial SQL

The examples in this section make use of a table of linear roads, and a table of polygonal municipality boundaries. The definition of the bc_roads table is:

Column    | Type              | Description
----------+-------------------+-------------------
gid       | integer           | Unique ID
name      | character varying | Road Name
geom      | geometry          | Location Geometry (Linestring)

The definition of the bc_municipality table is:

Column   | Type              | Description
---------+-------------------+-------------------
gid      | integer           | Unique ID
code     | integer           | Unique ID
name     | character varying | City / Town Name
geom     | geometry          | Location Geometry (Polygon)
5.3.1. What is the total length of all roads, expressed in kilometers?
5.3.2. How large is the city of Prince George, in hectares?
5.3.3. What is the largest municipality in the province, by area?
5.3.4. What is the length of roads fully contained within each municipality?
5.3.5. Create a new table with all the roads within the city of Prince George.
5.3.6. What is the length in kilometers of "Douglas St" in Victoria?
5.3.7. What is the largest municipality polygon that has a hole?

5.3.1.

What is the total length of all roads, expressed in kilometers?

You can answer this question with a very simple piece of SQL:

SELECT sum(ST_Length(geom))/1000 AS km_roads FROM bc_roads;

km_roads
------------------
70842.1243039643

5.3.2.

How large is the city of Prince George, in hectares?

This query combines an attribute condition (on the municipality name) with a spatial calculation (of the polygon area):

SELECT
  ST_Area(geom)/10000 AS hectares
FROM bc_municipality
WHERE name = 'PRINCE GEORGE';

hectares
------------------
32657.9103824927

5.3.3.

What is the largest municipality in the province, by area?

This query uses a spatial measurement as an ordering value. There are several ways of approaching this problem, but the most efficient is below:

SELECT
  name,
  ST_Area(geom)/10000 AS hectares
FROM bc_municipality
ORDER BY hectares DESC
LIMIT 1;

name           | hectares
---------------+-----------------
TUMBLER RIDGE  | 155020.02556131

Note that in order to answer this query we have to calculate the area of every polygon. If we were doing this a lot it would make sense to add an area column to the table that could be indexed for performance. By ordering the results in a descending direction, and them using the PostgreSQL "LIMIT" command we can easily select just the largest value without using an aggregate function like MAX().

5.3.4.

What is the length of roads fully contained within each municipality?

This is an example of a "spatial join", which brings together data from two tables (with a join) using a spatial interaction ("contained") as the join condition (rather than the usual relational approach of joining on a common key):

SELECT
  m.name,
  sum(ST_Length(r.geom))/1000 as roads_km
FROM bc_roads AS r
JOIN bc_municipality AS m
  ON ST_Contains(m.geom, r.geom)
GROUP BY m.name
ORDER BY roads_km;

name                        | roads_km
----------------------------+------------------
SURREY                      | 1539.47553551242
VANCOUVER                   | 1450.33093486576
LANGLEY DISTRICT            | 833.793392535662
BURNABY                     | 773.769091404338
PRINCE GEORGE               | 694.37554369147
...

This query takes a while, because every road in the table is summarized into the final result (about 250K roads for the example table). For smaller datsets (several thousand records on several hundred) the response can be very fast.

5.3.5.

Create a new table with all the roads within the city of Prince George.

This is an example of an "overlay", which takes in two tables and outputs a new table that consists of spatially clipped or cut resultants. Unlike the "spatial join" demonstrated above, this query creates new geometries. An overlay is like a turbo-charged spatial join, and is useful for more exact analysis work:

CREATE TABLE pg_roads as
SELECT
  ST_Intersection(r.geom, m.geom) AS intersection_geom,
  ST_Length(r.geom) AS rd_orig_length,
  r.*
FROM bc_roads AS r
JOIN bc_municipality AS m
  ON ST_Intersects(r.geom, m.geom)
WHERE
  m.name = 'PRINCE GEORGE';

5.3.6.

What is the length in kilometers of "Douglas St" in Victoria?

SELECT
  sum(ST_Length(r.geom))/1000 AS kilometers
FROM bc_roads r
JOIN bc_municipality m
  ON ST_Intersects(m.geom, r.geom
WHERE
  r.name = 'Douglas St'
  AND m.name = 'VICTORIA';

kilometers
------------------
4.89151904172838

5.3.7.

What is the largest municipality polygon that has a hole?

SELECT gid, name, ST_Area(geom) AS area
FROM bc_municipality
WHERE ST_NRings(geom) > 1
ORDER BY area DESC LIMIT 1;

gid  | name         | area
-----+--------------+------------------
12   | SPALLUMCHEEN | 257374619.430216

Chapter 6. Astuces de performances

6.1. Petites tables de grandes géométries

6.1.1. Description du problème

Les versions de PostgreSQL actuelles (y compris 8.0) souffrent d'une faiblesse optimiseur de requête relative les tables TOAST. Tables TOAST sont une sorte de «salle de l'extension" utilisé pour stocker de grandes valeurs (dans le sens de la taille des données) qui ne rentrent pas dans les pages de données normales (comme de longs textes, images ou des géométries complexes avec beaucoup de sommets), voir Documentation PostgreSQL pour TOAST pour plus d'informations).

Le problème apparaît s'il vous arrive d'avoir une table avec d'assez grandes géométries, mais pas beaucoup de lignes d'entre elles (comme un tableau contenant les frontières de tous les pays européens en haute résolution). Ensuite, le tableau lui-même est petit, mais il utilise beaucoup d'espace TOAST. Dans notre exemple, le cas, la table elle-même avait environ 80 lignes et seulement 3 pages de données utilisées, mais la table TOAST 8225 pages utilisé.

Maintenant émettre une requête en utilisant l'opérateur de géométrie && pour rechercher une boîte englobante qui correspond que très peu de ces lignes. Maintenant l'optimiseur de requêtes voit que la table n'a que 3 pages et 80 lignes. Il estime qu'une analyse séquentielle sur une telle petite table est beaucoup plus rapide que d'utiliser un index. Et alors il décide d'ignorer l'index GIST. Habituellement, cette estimation est correcte. Mais dans notre cas, l'opérateur && doit aller chercher chaque géométrie à partir du disque pour comparer les boîtes englobantes, et par conséquent la lecture de toutes les pages TOAST également.

Pour voir si votre souffrent de ce bogue, utilisez la commande "EXPLAIN ANALYZE" de postgresql. Pour plus d'informations et détails techniques, vous pouvez lire le fil sur la liste de diffusion des performances de postgres: http://archives.postgresql.org/pgsql-performance/2005-02/msg00030.php

and newer thread on PostGIS https://lists.osgeo.org/pipermail/postgis-devel/2017-June/026209.html

6.1.2. Solutions de contournement

Les personnes de PostgreSQL essayent de résoudre ce problème en faisant l'estimation de la requête TOAST-courant. Pour l'instant, voici deux solutions:

La première solution consiste à forcer le planificateur de requêtes à utiliser l'index. Envoyer "SET enable_seqscan TO off;" au serveur avant d'émettre la requête. Cela force le planificateur de requêtes à éviter balayages séquentiels lorsque cela est possible. Donc, il utilise l'index GIST comme d'habitude. Mais cet indicateur doit être fixé à chaque connexion, et il provoque le planificateur de requêtes à faire des erreurs d'estimation dans les autres cas, vous devrez donc faire "SET POUR enable_seqscan sur;" après la requête.

La deuxième solution consiste à faire le balayage séquentielle aussi vite que le planificateur de requêtes pense. Ceci peut être réalisé en créant une colonne supplémentaire qui "cache" la bbox, et contre cette correspondance. Dans notre exemple, les commandes sont comme:

SELECT AddGeometryColumn('myschema','mytable','bbox','4326','GEOMETRY','2'); 
UPDATE mytable SET bbox = ST_Envelope(ST_Force2D(the_geom));

Maintenant changez votre requête pour utiliser l'opérateur && face à la bbox au lieu de la geom_column, comme:

SELECT geom_column 
FROM mytable 
WHERE bbox && ST_SetSRID('BOX3D(0 0,1 1)'::box3d,4326);

Bien sûr, si vous changez ou ajoutez des lignes à mytable, vous devez garder la bbox "synchro". La façon la plus transparente pour ce faire serait des déclencheurs, mais vous pouvez également modifier votre application afin de maintenir la colonne bbox courante ou exécuter la requête UPDATE ci-dessus après chaque modification.

6.2. CLUSTER d'index géométriques

Pour les tables qui sont pour la plupart en lecture seule, et où un seul index est utilisé pour la majorité des requêtes, PostgreSQL offre la commande CLUSTER. Cette commande réorganise physiquement toutes les lignes de données dans le même ordre que les critères de l'index, ce qui donne deux avantages de performance: d'abord, pour des analyses d'intervalle de l'index, le nombre de recherche sur la table de données est considérablement réduit. Deuxièmement, si votre jeu de travail se concentre à quelques petits intervalles sur les index, vous avez une mise en cache plus efficace parce que les lignes de données sont dispersées sur moins de pages de données. (N'hésitez pas à lire la documentation de la commande CLUSTER du manuel PostgreSQL à ce stade)

Cependant, PostgreSQL ne permet actuellement pas le clustering sur les index GIST de PostGIS car les indices GIST ignorent les valeurs NULL, vous obtenez un message d'erreur comme:

lwgeom=# CLUSTER my_geom_index ON my_table; 
ERROR: cannot cluster when index access method does not handle null values
HINT: You may be able to work around this by marking column "the_geom" NOT NULL.

Comme le message d'ASTUCES vous le dit, on peut contourner cette lacune en ajoutant une contrainte "not null" à la table:

lwgeom=# ALTER TABLE my_table ALTER COLUMN the_geom SET not null; 
ALTER TABLE

Bien sûr, cela ne fonctionnera pas si vous avez besoin, dans les faits, de valeurs NULL dans la colonne de géométrie. En outre, vous devez utiliser la méthode ci-dessus pour ajouter la contrainte, en utilisant une contrainte CHECK comme "ALTER TABLE blubb ADD CHECK (geometry is not null)" ne fonctionnera pas.

6.3. Eviter les conversions de dimension

Sometimes, you happen to have 3D or 4D data in your table, but always access it using OpenGIS compliant ST_AsText() or ST_AsBinary() functions that only output 2D geometries. They do this by internally calling the ST_Force2D() function, which introduces a significant overhead for large geometries. To avoid this overhead, it may be feasible to pre-drop those additional dimensions once and forever:

UPDATE mytable SET the_geom = ST_Force2D(the_geom); 
VACUUM FULL ANALYZE mytable;

Notez que si vous avez ajouté votre colonne de géométrie à l'aide AddGeometryColumn (), il y aura une contrainte sur la dimension de la géométrie. Pour contourner vous devrez supprimer la contrainte. N'oubliez pas de mettre à jour l'entrée dans la table geometry_columns et recréer la contrainte par la suite.

En cas de grandes tables, il peut être judicieux de diviser cette mise à jour en petites portions en restreignant l'UPDATE à une partie de la table via une clause WHERE et votre clé primaire ou d'un autre critère, et exécutant un simple «VACUUM»; entre votre mises à jour. Cela réduit considérablement le besoin d'espace disque temporaire. En outre, si vous avez des données géométriques de dimension mixte, restreindre la mise à jour en "WHERE dimension(the_geom)>2" saute la ré-écriture des géométries qui sont déjà en 2D.

Chapter 7. Building Applications

7.1. Utiliser MapServer

MapServer est un serveur cartographique web conforme aux spécifications définies par l'OpenGIS

7.1.1. Utilisation basique

Afin d'utiliser conjointement PostGIS et MapServer, il est nécessaire au préalable de savoir comment configurer MapServer ce qui est bien au-delà de l'objectif de cette documentation. Cette section portera spécifiquement sur les aspects relatifs à PostGIS.

Pour utiliser PostGIS avec MapServer, vous aurez besoin de :

  • La version 0.6 - ou plus récente - de PostGIS.

  • La version 3.5 - ou plus récente - de MapServer.

MapServer communique avec PostGIS/PostgreSQL en utilisant l'interface libpq comme n'importe quel autre client PostgreSQL. Cela signifie que pour utiliser PostGIS, MapServer peut être installé sur n'importe quelle machine disposant d'un accès internet au serveur PostGIS. Plus la connection entre les deux systèmes est rapide et meilleur seront les performances.

  1. Compile and install MapServer, with whatever options you desire, including the "--with-postgis" configuration option.

  2. Dans votre fichier MapFIle, ajoutez une couche PostGIS. Par exemple :

    LAYER
    CONNECTIONTYPE postgis
    NAME "widehighways" 
    # Connection à la base de données
    CONNECTION "user=dbuser dbname=gisdatabase host=bigserver"
    PROCESSING "CLOSE_CONNECTION=DEFER"
    # Récupère les informations géographiques de la colonne 'geom' de la table 'roads' 
    DATA "geom from roads using srid=4326 using unique gid" 
    STATUS ON
    TYPE LINE 
    # Seule les routes principales seront affichées 
    FILTER "type = 'highway' and numlanes >= 4" 
    CLASS 
    # Le trait représentant les routes importantes sera plus claires et large de 2 pixels
    EXPRESSION ([numlanes] >= 6) 
    STYLE
    COLOR 255 22 22 
    WIDTH 2 
    END
    END 
    CLASS 
    # Toute les autres seront dessinées en couleur sombre avec un trait d'1 pixel d'paisseur
    EXPRESSION ([numlanes] < 6) 
    STYLE
    COLOR 205 92 82
    END
    END 
    END

    In the example above, the PostGIS-specific directives are as follows:

    CONNECTIONTYPE

    Pour les couches de données PostGIS, cela sera toujours "postgis".

    CONNECTION

    The database connection is governed by the a 'connection string' which is a standard set of keys and values like this (with the default values in <>):

    user=<username> password=<password> dbname=<username> hostname=<server> port=<5432>

    An empty connection string is still valid, and any of the key/value pairs can be omitted. At a minimum you will generally supply the database name and username to connect with.

    DATA

    The form of this parameter is "<geocolumn> from <tablename> using srid=<srid> using unique <primary key>" where the column is the spatial column to be rendered to the map, the SRID is SRID used by the column and the primary key is the table primary key (or any other uniquely-valued column with an index).

    You can omit the "using srid" and "using unique" clauses and MapServer will automatically determine the correct values if possible, but at the cost of running a few extra queries on the server for each map draw.

    PROCESSING

    Putting in a CLOSE_CONNECTION=DEFER if you have multiple layers reuses existing connections instead of closing them. This improves speed. Refer to for MapServer PostGIS Performance Tips for a more detailed explanation.

    FILTER

    The filter must be a valid SQL string corresponding to the logic normally following the "WHERE" keyword in a SQL query. So, for example, to render only roads with 6 or more lanes, use a filter of "num_lanes >= 6".

  3. In your spatial database, ensure you have spatial (GiST) indexes built for any the layers you will be drawing.

    CREATE INDEX [indexname] ON [tablename] USING GIST ( [geometrycolumn] );
  4. If you will be querying your layers using MapServer you will also need to use the "using unique" clause in your DATA statement.

    MapServer requires unique identifiers for each spatial record when doing queries, and the PostGIS module of MapServer uses the unique value you specify in order to provide these unique identifiers. Using the table primary key is the best practice.

7.1.2. Questions les plus fréquemment posées

7.1.2.1. When I use an EXPRESSION in my map file, the condition never returns as true, even though I know the values exist in my table.
7.1.2.2. The FILTER I use for my Shapefiles is not working for my PostGIS table of the same data.
7.1.2.3. My PostGIS layer draws much slower than my Shapefile layer, is this normal?
7.1.2.4. Mes couches de données PostGIS s'affichent correctement, mais les requêtes sont longues. Qu'est ce qui ne va pas ?
7.1.2.5. Est-il possible avec MapServer d'utiliser le type de données "geography" (nouveauté de la version 1.5 de PostGIS) comme couche de données ?

7.1.2.1.

When I use an EXPRESSION in my map file, the condition never returns as true, even though I know the values exist in my table.

Unlike shape files, PostGIS field names have to be referenced in EXPRESSIONS using lower case.

EXPRESSION ([numlanes] >= 6)

7.1.2.2.

The FILTER I use for my Shapefiles is not working for my PostGIS table of the same data.

Unlike shape files, filters for PostGIS layers use SQL syntax (they are appended to the SQL statement the PostGIS connector generates for drawing layers in MapServer).

FILTER "type = 'highway' and numlanes >= 4"

7.1.2.3.

My PostGIS layer draws much slower than my Shapefile layer, is this normal?

In general, the more features you are drawing into a given map, the more likely it is that PostGIS will be slower than Shapefiles. For maps with relatively few features (100s), PostGIS will often be faster. For maps with high feature density (1000s), PostGIS will always be slower.

If you are finding substantial draw performance problems, it is possible that you have not built a spatial index on your table.

postgis# CREATE INDEX geotable_gix ON geotable USING GIST ( geocolumn );
postgis# VACUUM ANALYZE;

7.1.2.4.

Mes couches de données PostGIS s'affichent correctement, mais les requêtes sont longues. Qu'est ce qui ne va pas ?

Afin que vos requêtes s'exécutent rapidement, vos enregistrements doivent être identifiables par une clé unique, identifiant qui doit également avoir été indexé.

You can specify what unique key for mapserver to use with the USING UNIQUE clause in your DATA line:

DATA "geom FROM geotable USING UNIQUE gid"

7.1.2.5.

Est-il possible avec MapServer d'utiliser le type de données "geography" (nouveauté de la version 1.5 de PostGIS) comme couche de données ?

Yes! MapServer understands geography columns as being the same as geometry columns, but always using an SRID of 4326. Just make sure to include a "using srid=4326" clause in your DATA statement. Everything else works exactly the same as with geometry.

DATA "geog FROM geogtable USING SRID=4326 USING UNIQUE gid"

7.1.3. Usage avancé

The USING pseudo-SQL clause is used to add some information to help mapserver understand the results of more complex queries. More specifically, when either a view or a subselect is used as the source table (the thing to the right of "FROM" in a DATA definition) it is more difficult for mapserver to automatically determine a unique identifier for each row and also the SRID for the table. The USING clause can provide mapserver with these two pieces of information as follows:

DATA "geom FROM (
  SELECT
    table1.geom AS geom,
    table1.gid AS gid,
    table2.data AS data
  FROM table1
  LEFT JOIN table2
  ON table1.id = table2.id
) AS new_table USING UNIQUE gid USING SRID=4326"
USING UNIQUE <uniqueid>

MapServer requires a unique id for each row in order to identify the row when doing map queries. Normally it identifies the primary key from the system tables. However, views and subselects don't automatically have an known unique column. If you want to use MapServer's query functionality, you need to ensure your view or subselect includes a uniquely valued column, and declare it with USING UNIQUE. For example, you could explicitly select nee of the table's primary key values for this purpose, or any other column which is guaranteed to be unique for the result set.

[Note]

"Querying a Map" is the action of clicking on a map to ask for information about the map features in that location. Don't confuse "map queries" with the SQL query in a DATA definition.

USING SRID=<srid>

PostGIS needs to know which spatial referencing system is being used by the geometries in order to return the correct data back to MapServer. Normally it is possible to find this information in the "geometry_columns" table in the PostGIS database, however, this is not possible for tables which are created on the fly such as subselects and views. So the USING SRID= option allows the correct SRID to be specified in the DATA definition.

7.1.4. Exemples

Lets start with a simple example and work our way up. Consider the following MapServer layer definition:

LAYER
  CONNECTIONTYPE postgis
  NAME "roads"
  CONNECTION "user=theuser password=thepass dbname=thedb host=theserver"
  DATA "geom from roads"
  STATUS ON
  TYPE LINE
  CLASS
    STYLE
      COLOR 0 0 0
    END
  END
END

This layer will display all the road geometries in the roads table as black lines.

Now lets say we want to show only the highways until we get zoomed in to at least a 1:100000 scale - the next two layers will achieve this effect:

LAYER
  CONNECTIONTYPE postgis
  CONNECTION "user=theuser password=thepass dbname=thedb host=theserver"
  PROCESSING "CLOSE_CONNECTION=DEFER"
  DATA "geom from roads"
  MINSCALE 100000
  STATUS ON
  TYPE LINE
  FILTER "road_type = 'highway'"
  CLASS
    COLOR 0 0 0
  END
END
LAYER
  CONNECTIONTYPE postgis
  CONNECTION "user=theuser password=thepass dbname=thedb host=theserver"
  PROCESSING "CLOSE_CONNECTION=DEFER"
  DATA "geom from roads"
  MAXSCALE 100000
  STATUS ON
  TYPE LINE
  CLASSITEM road_type
  CLASS
    EXPRESSION "highway"
    STYLE
      WIDTH 2
      COLOR 255 0 0
    END
  END
  CLASS
    STYLE
      COLOR 0 0 0
    END
  END
END

The first layer is used when the scale is greater than 1:100000, and displays only the roads of type "highway" as black lines. The FILTER option causes only roads of type "highway" to be displayed.

The second layer is used when the scale is less than 1:100000, and will display highways as double-thick red lines, and other roads as regular black lines.

So, we have done a couple of interesting things using only MapServer functionality, but our DATA SQL statement has remained simple. Suppose that the name of the road is stored in another table (for whatever reason) and we need to do a join to get it and label our roads.

LAYER
  CONNECTIONTYPE postgis
  CONNECTION "user=theuser password=thepass dbname=thedb host=theserver"
  DATA "geom FROM (SELECT roads.gid AS gid, roads.geom AS geom,
        road_names.name as name FROM roads LEFT JOIN road_names ON
        roads.road_name_id = road_names.road_name_id)
        AS named_roads USING UNIQUE gid USING SRID=4326"
  MAXSCALE 20000
  STATUS ON
  TYPE ANNOTATION
  LABELITEM name
  CLASS
    LABEL
      ANGLE auto
      SIZE 8
      COLOR 0 192 0
      TYPE truetype
      FONT arial
    END
  END
END

This annotation layer adds green labels to all the roads when the scale gets down to 1:20000 or less. It also demonstrates how to use an SQL join in a DATA definition.

7.2. Clients Java (JDBC)

Java clients can access PostGIS "geometry" objects in the PostgreSQL database either directly as text representations or using the JDBC extension objects bundled with PostGIS. In order to use the extension objects, the "postgis.jar" file must be in your CLASSPATH along with the "postgresql.jar" JDBC driver package.

import java.sql.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.lang.*;
import org.postgis.*;

public class JavaGIS {

public static void main(String[] args) {

  java.sql.Connection conn;

  try {
    /*
    * Load the JDBC driver and establish a connection.
    */
    Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
    String url = "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/database";
    conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "postgres", "");
    /*
    * Add the geometry types to the connection. Note that you
    * must cast the connection to the pgsql-specific connection
    * implementation before calling the addDataType() method.
    */
    ((org.postgresql.PGConnection)conn).addDataType("geometry",Class.forName("org.postgis.PGgeometry"));
    ((org.postgresql.PGConnection)conn).addDataType("box3d",Class.forName("org.postgis.PGbox3d"));
    /*
    * Create a statement and execute a select query.
    */
    Statement s = conn.createStatement();
    ResultSet r = s.executeQuery("select geom,id from geomtable");
    while( r.next() ) {
      /*
      * Retrieve the geometry as an object then cast it to the geometry type.
      * Print things out.
      */
      PGgeometry geom = (PGgeometry)r.getObject(1);
      int id = r.getInt(2);
      System.out.println("Row " + id + ":");
      System.out.println(geom.toString());
    }
    s.close();
    conn.close();
  }
catch( Exception e ) {
  e.printStackTrace();
  }
}
}

The "PGgeometry" object is a wrapper object which contains a specific topological geometry object (subclasses of the abstract class "Geometry") depending on the type: Point, LineString, Polygon, MultiPoint, MultiLineString, MultiPolygon.

PGgeometry geom = (PGgeometry)r.getObject(1);
if( geom.getType() == Geometry.POLYGON ) {
  Polygon pl = (Polygon)geom.getGeometry();
  for( int r = 0; r < pl.numRings(); r++) {
    LinearRing rng = pl.getRing(r);
    System.out.println("Ring: " + r);
    for( int p = 0; p < rng.numPoints(); p++ ) {
      Point pt = rng.getPoint(p);
      System.out.println("Point: " + p);
      System.out.println(pt.toString());
    }
  }
}

The JavaDoc for the extension objects provides a reference for the various data accessor functions in the geometric objects.

7.3. C Clients (libpq)

...

7.3.1. Text Cursors

...

7.3.2. Binary Cursors

...

Chapter 8. Référence PostGIS

Les fonctions suivantes sont celles dont un utilisateur normal de PostGIS peut avoir besoin. Il existe d'autres fonctions nécessaires au fonctionnement de PostGIS. Elles ne sont normalement pas destinées à un utilisateur standard.

[Note]

PostGIS a entamé une phase de transition concernant le nom des fonctions pour les faire correspondre à la norme SQL-MM. La plupart des fonctions ont été renommées en utilisant le préfixe des types spatiaux (ST, pour Spatial Type). Les anciennes fonctions, toujours disponibles, ne sont pas listées ci-après si leur équivalent est disponible. Les fonctions non préfixées par ST, qui ne sont pas listées dans cette documentation sont dépréciées et seront supprimées des prochaines version de PostGIS. IL NE FAUT PLUS LES UTILISER.

8.1. Les types Geometry/Geography/Box de PostgreSQL PostGIS

Abstract

Cette section liste les types de données PostgreSQL installés par PostGIS. Leurs méthodes de transtypage sont également décrites, ce qui est particulièrement important lors de la définition/création de nouvelles fonctions.

Each data type describes its type casting behavior. A type cast converts values of one data type into another type. PostgreSQL allows defining casting behavior for custom types, along with the functions used to convert type values. Casts can have automatic behavior, which allows automatic conversion of a function argument to a type supported by the function.

Some casts have explicit behavior, which means the cast must be specified using the syntax CAST(myval As sometype) or myval::sometype. Explicit casting avoids the issue of ambiguous casts, which can occur when using an overloaded function which does not support a given type. For example, a function may accept a box2d or a box3d, but not a geometry. Since geometry has an automatic cast to both box types, this produces an "ambiguous function" error. To prevent the error use an explicit cast to the desired box type.

All data types can be cast to text, so this does not need to be specified explicitly.

box2d — The type representing a 2-dimensional bounding box.
box3d — The type representing a 3-dimensional bounding box.
geometry — geography est un type de données spatiales utilisé pour représenter une entité dans les coordonnées sphériques de la terre.
geometry_dump — A composite type used to describe the parts of complex geometry.
geography — The type representing spatial features with geodetic (ellipsoidal) coordinate systems.

Name

box2d — The type representing a 2-dimensional bounding box.

Description

box3d est un type spatial utilisé pour représenter la boite englobante d'une géométrie ou d'un ensemble de géométries en 3 dimensions. La fonction ST_3DExtent renvoie une box3d.

The representation contains the values xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax. These are the minimum and maximum values of the X and Y extents.

box2d objects have a text representation which looks like BOX(1 2,5 6).

Comportement du transtypage

Cette section liste les transtypages automatiques et explicites autorisés pour ce type de données

Transtypage versComportement
box3dautomatique
geometryautomatique

Name

box3d — The type representing a 3-dimensional bounding box.

Description

box3d est un type spatial utilisé pour représenter la boite englobante d'une géométrie ou d'un ensemble de géométries en 3 dimensions. La fonction ST_3DExtent renvoie une box3d.

The representation contains the values xmin, ymin, zmin, xmax, ymax, zmax. These are the minimum and maxium values of the X, Y and Z extents.

box3d objects have a text representation which looks like BOX3D(1 2 3,5 6 5).

Comportement du transtypage

Cette section liste les transtypages automatiques et explicites autorisés pour ce type de données

Transtypage versComportement
boxautomatique
box2dautomatique
geometryautomatique

Name

geometry — geography est un type de données spatiales utilisé pour représenter une entité dans les coordonnées sphériques de la terre.

Description

Le type geometry est un type de données capital dans PostGIS, utilisé pour modéliser une entité dans un système de coordonées euclidien.

All spatial operations on geometry use the units of the Spatial Reference System the geometry is in.

Comportement du transtypage

Cette section liste les transtypages automatiques et explicites autorisés pour ce type de données

Transtypage versComportement
boxautomatique
box2dautomatique
box3dautomatique
byteaautomatique
geographyautomatique
textautomatique

Name

geometry_dump — A composite type used to describe the parts of complex geometry.

Description

geometry_dump is a composite data type containing the fields:

  • geom - a geometry representing a component of the dumped geometry. The geometry type depends on the originating function.

  • path[] - an integer array that defines the navigation path within the dumped geometry to the geom component. The path array is 1-based (i.e. path[1] is the first element.)

It is used by the ST_Dump* family of functions as an output type to explode a complex geometry into its constituent parts.


Name

geography — The type representing spatial features with geodetic (ellipsoidal) coordinate systems.

Description

geography est un type de données spatiales utilisé pour représenter une entité dans les coordonnées sphériques de la terre.

Spatial operations on the geography type provide more accurate results by taking the ellipsoidal model into account.

Comportement du transtypage

Cette section liste les transtypages automatiques et explicites autorisés pour ce type de données

Transtypage versComportement
geometryexplicite

8.2. Fonctions de gestion

Abstract

These functions assist in defining tables containing geometry columns.

AddGeometryColumn — Supprime une colonne géométrique d'une table spatiale.
DropGeometryColumn — Supprime une colonne géométrique d'une table spatiale.
DropGeometryTable — Supprime une table et toutes ces références dans geometry_columns.
Find_SRID — Returns the SRID defined for a geometry column.
Populate_Geometry_Columns — Ensures geometry columns are defined with type modifiers or have appropriate spatial constraints.
UpdateGeometrySRID — Updates the SRID of all features in a geometry column, and the table metadata.

Name

AddGeometryColumn — Supprime une colonne géométrique d'une table spatiale.

Synopsis

text AddGeometryColumn(varchar table_name, varchar column_name, integer srid, varchar type, integer dimension, boolean use_typmod=true);

text AddGeometryColumn(varchar schema_name, varchar table_name, varchar column_name, integer srid, varchar type, integer dimension, boolean use_typmod=true);

text AddGeometryColumn(varchar catalog_name, varchar schema_name, varchar table_name, varchar column_name, integer srid, varchar type, integer dimension, boolean use_typmod=true);

Description

Ajoute une colonne géométrique à une table attributaire existante. schema_name est le nom du schéma de la table. srid est un entier positif présent dans la table SPATIAL_REF_SYS. type est le type de géométrie en texte, par exemple 'POLYGON' ou 'MULTILINESTRING'. Une erreur est renvoyée si le schéma n'existe pas (ou n'est pas visible dans le search_path courant) ou si le SRID, type de géométrie ou dimension est invalide.

[Note]

Changement: 2.0.0 Cette fonction ne met plus à jour geometry_columns maintenant que geometry_columns est une vue basée sur le catalogue système. Par défaut, elle ne créée plus de contraintes mais utilise le modificateur de type de PostgreSQL. Ainsi, par exemple, créer une colonne de type POINT WGS84 est désormais équivalent à: ALTER TABLE some_table ADD COLUMN geom geometry(Point,4326);

Changement: 2.0.0 Si l'ancien mécanisme basé sur les contraintes est nécessaire, utiliser le paramètre use_typmod avec la valeur false.

[Note]

Changement: 2.0.0 Les vues ne peuvent plus être enregistrées dans geometry_columns. Cependant, les vues construites à partir de tables contenant des géométries définies avec le modificateur de type et n'utilisant pas de fonctions d'encapsulation seront enregistrées dans la vue geometry_columns car elles héritent du mécanisme des tables dont elles sont issues. Les vues utilisant des fonctions renvoyant d'autres géométries doivent être transtypées vers des géométries avec modificateur de type pour pouvoir être correctement référencées dans la vue geometry_columns. Cf. Section 4.6.3, “Manually Registering Geometry Columns”.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du paramètre use_typmod. Le comportement par défaut est de créer une colonne géométrique avec modificateur de type au lieu de contraintes sur la colonne.

Exemples

-- Create schema to hold data
CREATE SCHEMA my_schema;
-- Create a new simple PostgreSQL table
CREATE TABLE my_schema.my_spatial_table (id serial);

-- Describing the table shows a simple table with a single "id" column.
postgis=# \d my_schema.my_spatial_table
                                                         Table "my_schema.my_spatial_table"
 Column |  Type   |                                Modifiers
--------+---------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 id     | integer | not null default nextval('my_schema.my_spatial_table_id_seq'::regclass)

-- Add a spatial column to the table
SELECT AddGeometryColumn ('my_schema','my_spatial_table','geom',4326,'POINT',2);

-- Add a point using the old constraint based behavior
SELECT AddGeometryColumn ('my_schema','my_spatial_table','geom_c',4326,'POINT',2, false);

--Add a curvepolygon using old constraint behavior
SELECT AddGeometryColumn ('my_schema','my_spatial_table','geomcp_c',4326,'CURVEPOLYGON',2, false);

-- Describe the table again reveals the addition of a new geometry columns.
\d my_schema.my_spatial_table
                            addgeometrycolumn
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 my_schema.my_spatial_table.geomcp_c SRID:4326 TYPE:CURVEPOLYGON DIMS:2
(1 row)

                                    Table "my_schema.my_spatial_table"
  Column  |         Type         |                                Modifiers
----------+----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 id       | integer              | not null default nextval('my_schema.my_spatial_table_id_seq'::regclass)
 geom     | geometry(Point,4326) |
 geom_c   | geometry             |
 geomcp_c | geometry             |
Check constraints:
    "enforce_dims_geom_c" CHECK (st_ndims(geom_c) = 2)
    "enforce_dims_geomcp_c" CHECK (st_ndims(geomcp_c) = 2)
    "enforce_geotype_geom_c" CHECK (geometrytype(geom_c) = 'POINT'::text OR geom_c IS NULL)
    "enforce_geotype_geomcp_c" CHECK (geometrytype(geomcp_c) = 'CURVEPOLYGON'::text OR geomcp_c IS NULL)
    "enforce_srid_geom_c" CHECK (st_srid(geom_c) = 4326)
    "enforce_srid_geomcp_c" CHECK (st_srid(geomcp_c) = 4326)

-- geometry_columns view also registers the new columns --
SELECT f_geometry_column As col_name, type, srid, coord_dimension As ndims
    FROM geometry_columns
    WHERE f_table_name = 'my_spatial_table' AND f_table_schema = 'my_schema';

 col_name |     type     | srid | ndims
----------+--------------+------+-------
 geom     | Point        | 4326 |     2
 geom_c   | Point        | 4326 |     2
 geomcp_c | CurvePolygon | 4326 |     2

Name

DropGeometryColumn — Supprime une colonne géométrique d'une table spatiale.

Synopsis

text DropGeometryColumn(varchar table_name, varchar column_name);

text DropGeometryColumn(varchar schema_name, varchar table_name, varchar column_name);

text DropGeometryColumn(varchar catalog_name, varchar schema_name, varchar table_name, varchar column_name);

Description

Supprime une colonne géométrique d'une table spatiale. Note: schema_name doit correspondre au champ f_table_schema de la table geometry_columns.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

[Note]

Changement: 2.0.0 Function assurant la rétro compatibilité. Maintenant que geometry_columns est une vue basée sur les catalogues du système, la colonne géométrique peut etre supprimée d'une table comme tout autre colonne en utilisant ALTER TABLE

Exemples

SELECT DropGeometryColumn ('my_schema','my_spatial_table','geom');
                        ----RESULT output ---
                                          dropgeometrycolumn
------------------------------------------------------
 my_schema.my_spatial_table.geom effectively removed.

-- In PostGIS 2.0+ the above is also equivalent to the standard
-- the standard alter table.  Both will deregister from geometry_columns
ALTER TABLE my_schema.my_spatial_table DROP column geom;
                

Name

DropGeometryTable — Supprime une table et toutes ces références dans geometry_columns.

Synopsis

boolean DropGeometryTable(varchar table_name);

boolean DropGeometryTable(varchar schema_name, varchar table_name);

boolean DropGeometryTable(varchar catalog_name, varchar schema_name, varchar table_name);

Description

Supprime une table et toutes ces références dans geometry_columns. Note: utilise la fonction current_schema() sur les installations PostgreSQL le supportant, si le schéma n'est pas fourni.

[Note]

Changement: 2.0.0 Function assurant la rétro compatibilité. Maintenant que geometry_columns est une vue basée sur les catalogues du système, une table spatiale peut etre supprimée comme tout autre table en utilisant ALTER TABLE

Exemples

SELECT DropGeometryTable ('my_schema','my_spatial_table');
----RESULT output ---
my_schema.my_spatial_table dropped.

-- The above is now equivalent to --
DROP TABLE my_schema.my_spatial_table;
                

Name

Find_SRID — Returns the SRID defined for a geometry column.

Synopsis

integer Find_SRID(varchar a_schema_name, varchar a_table_name, varchar a_geomfield_name);

Description

Returns the integer SRID of the specified geometry column by searching through the GEOMETRY_COLUMNS table. If the geometry column has not been properly added (e.g. with the AddGeometryColumn function), this function will not work.

Exemples

SELECT Find_SRID('public', 'tiger_us_state_2007', 'geom_4269');
find_srid
----------
4269

Voir aussi

ST_SRID


Name

Populate_Geometry_Columns — Ensures geometry columns are defined with type modifiers or have appropriate spatial constraints.

Synopsis

text Populate_Geometry_Columns(boolean use_typmod=true);

int Populate_Geometry_Columns(oid relation_oid, boolean use_typmod=true);

Description

S'assure que les colonnes géométriques sont définies avec un modificateur de type ou dispose des contraintes nécessaires. Garantit un enregistrement correct dans la vue geometry_columns. Par défaut, convertit toutes les colonnes géométriques sans modificateur de type en colonnes avec modificateurs. Pour conserver l'ancien mécanisme, mettre use_typmod=false

Pour conserver la rétro compatibilité et pour des besoins particuliers comme par exemple des tables héritées ayant des types géométriques différents, l'ancien mécanisme est toujours supporté. Si ce mécanisme est nécessaire, le nouveau paramètre optionnel doit être mis à false: use_typmod=false. Avec cette valeur, la colonne géométrique sera créée sans modificateur de type mais 3 contraintes seront définies. Cela signifie concrètement que chaque colonne géométrique de la table aura au moins 3 contraintes:

  • enforce_dims_the_geom - ensures every geometry has the same dimension (see ST_NDims)

  • enforce_geotype_the_geom - ensures every geometry is of the same type (see GeometryType)

  • enforce_srid_the_geom - s'assure que toutes les géométries sont dans la même projection (see ST_SRID)

Si un identifiant de table oid est fourni, cette fonction tente de déterminer le SRID, la dimension et le type géométrique de toutes les colonnes géométriques de la table, ajoutant des contraintes si nécessaire. En cas de succès, une ligne est insérée dans la table geometry_columns, sinon, une erreur est affichée indiquant le problème.

Si un identifiant de vue oid est fourni, comme pour un oid de table, cette fonction tente de déterminer le SRID, la dimension et le type géométrique de toutes les colonnes géométriques de la vue, insérant les informations correspondantes dans la table geometry_columns. Rien n'est fait concernant les contraintes.

La version sans paramètre est un raccourci pour la version avec paramètres. Elle vide puis remplit la table geometry_columns pour chaque table ou vue spatiale de la base, ajoutant les contraintes aux tables si besoin. Retourne un résumé montrant le nombre de colonnes géométriques identifiées dans la base et le nombre inséré dans la table geometry_columns. La version avec paramètres renvoie juste le nombre de lignes insérées dans la table geometry_columns

Disponibilité: 1.4.0

Changement: 2.0.0 Par défaut, utilise les modificateurs de type au lieu de contraintes de vérification pour contraindre les types géométriques. Le comportement basé sur les contraintes peut être activé en mettant le nouveau paramètre use_typmod à false.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 L'argument optionnel use_typmod a été introduit pour controler si les colonnes sont créés avec des modificateurs de type ou des contraintes de vérification.

Exemples

CREATE TABLE public.myspatial_table(gid serial, geom geometry);
INSERT INTO myspatial_table(geom) VALUES(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)',4326) );
-- This will now use typ modifiers.  For this to work, there must exist data
SELECT Populate_Geometry_Columns('public.myspatial_table'::regclass);

populate_geometry_columns
--------------------------
                        1


\d myspatial_table

                                   Table "public.myspatial_table"
 Column |           Type            |                           Modifiers
--------+---------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------
 gid    | integer                   | not null default nextval('myspatial_table_gid_seq'::regclass)
 geom   | geometry(LineString,4326) |
-- This will change the geometry columns to use constraints if they are not typmod or have constraints already.
--For this to work, there must exist data
CREATE TABLE public.myspatial_table_cs(gid serial, geom geometry);
INSERT INTO myspatial_table_cs(geom) VALUES(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)',4326) );
SELECT Populate_Geometry_Columns('public.myspatial_table_cs'::regclass, false);
populate_geometry_columns
--------------------------
                        1
\d myspatial_table_cs

                          Table "public.myspatial_table_cs"
 Column |   Type   |                            Modifiers
--------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------
 gid    | integer  | not null default nextval('myspatial_table_cs_gid_seq'::regclass)
 geom   | geometry |
Check constraints:
    "enforce_dims_geom" CHECK (st_ndims(geom) = 2)
    "enforce_geotype_geom" CHECK (geometrytype(geom) = 'LINESTRING'::text OR geom IS NULL)
    "enforce_srid_geom" CHECK (st_srid(geom) = 4326)

Name

UpdateGeometrySRID — Updates the SRID of all features in a geometry column, and the table metadata.

Synopsis

text UpdateGeometrySRID(varchar table_name, varchar column_name, integer srid);

text UpdateGeometrySRID(varchar schema_name, varchar table_name, varchar column_name, integer srid);

text UpdateGeometrySRID(varchar catalog_name, varchar schema_name, varchar table_name, varchar column_name, integer srid);

Description

Met à jour le SRID de tous les objets d'une colonne géométrique et met à jour les métadonnées de geometry_columns et la contrainte sur le SRID. Note: utilise la fonction current_schema() sur les installations PostgreSQL le supportant, si le schéma n'est pas fourni.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

Insert geometries into roads table with a SRID set already using EWKT format:

COPY roads (geom) FROM STDIN;
SRID=4326;LINESTRING(0 0, 10 10)
SRID=4326;LINESTRING(10 10, 15 0)
\.
                

Cela va changer le srid de la table roads à 4326 quelle que soit sa valeur avant

SELECT UpdateGeometrySRID('roads','geom',4326);

L'exemple précédent est équivalent à cette requête DDL

ALTER TABLE roads
  ALTER COLUMN geom TYPE geometry(MULTILINESTRING, 4326)
    USING ST_SetSRID(geom,4326);

Si vous vous êtes trompé dans la projection lors du chargement ( ou vous l'avez insérée comme étant inconnue) et que vous voulez la transformer en web mercator en une seule action vous pouvez faire ceci avec des DDL, mais il n'y a aucun équivalent PostGIS dans les fonctions de gestion pour faire ceci en une seule étape.

ALTER TABLE roads
 ALTER COLUMN geom TYPE geometry(MULTILINESTRING, 3857) USING ST_Transform(ST_SetSRID(geom,4326),3857) ;

8.3. Constructeurs de géométries

ST_GeomCollFromText — Creates a GeometryCollection or Multi* geometry from a set of geometries.
ST_LineFromMultiPoint — Crée une LineString à partir d'une géométrie MultiPoint.
ST_MakeEnvelope — Crée un polygone rectangulaire à partir des valeurs minimales et maximales données. Les coordonnées doivent être dans le SRS défini par le SRID.
ST_MakeLine — Crée une LineString à partir d'une géométrie MultiPoint.
ST_MakePoint — Creates a 2D, 3DZ or 4D Point.
ST_MakePointM — Crée un point à partir de coordonnées x et y.
ST_MakePolygon — Creates a Polygon from a shell and optional list of holes.
ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y and SRID values.
ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y, Z and SRID values.
ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y, M and SRID values.
ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y, Z, M and SRID values.
ST_Polygon — Creates a Polygon from a LineString with a specified SRID.
ST_MakeEnvelope — Creates a rectangular Polygon in Web Mercator (SRID:3857) using the XYZ tile system.
ST_HexagonGrid — Returns a set of hexagons and cell indices that completely cover the bounds of the geometry argument.
ST_Hexagon — Returns a single hexagon, using the provided edge size and cell coordinate within the hexagon grid space.
ST_SquareGrid — Returns a set of grid squares and cell indices that completely cover the bounds of the geometry argument.
ST_Square — Returns a single square, using the provided edge size and cell coordinate within the square grid space.
ST_Letters — Returns the input letters rendered as geometry with a default start position at the origin and default text height of 100.

Name

ST_GeomCollFromText — Creates a GeometryCollection or Multi* geometry from a set of geometries.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakeLine(geometry set geoms);

geometry ST_MakeLine(geometry geom1, geometry geom2);

geometry ST_MakeLine(geometry[] geoms_array);

Description

Collects geometries into a geometry collection. The result is either a Multi* or a GeometryCollection, depending on whether the input geometries have the same or different types (homogeneous or heterogeneous). The input geometries are left unchanged within the collection.

Variant 1: accepts two input geometries

Variant 2: accepts an array of geometries

Variant 3: aggregate function accepting a rowset of geometries.

[Note]

If any of the input geometries are collections (Multi* or GeometryCollection) ST_Collect returns a GeometryCollection (since that is the only type which can contain nested collections). To prevent this, use ST_Dump in a subquery to expand the input collections to their atomic elements (see example below).

[Note]

ST_Collect and ST_Union appear similar, but in fact operate quite differently. ST_Collect aggregates geometries into a collection without changing them in any way. ST_Union geometrically merges geometries where they overlap, and splits linestrings at intersections. It may return single geometries when it dissolves boundaries.

Disponibilité: 1.4.0 - création de ST_MakeLine(geomarray). L'agrégat spatial ST_MakeLine amélioré pour supporter plus de points plus rapidement.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemple - utilisation de XLink

Collect 2D points.

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_Collect( ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'),
        ST_GeomFromText('POINT(-2 3)') ));

st_astext
----------
MULTIPOINT((1 2),(-2 3))

Collect 3D points.

SELECT ST_AsEWKT( ST_Collect( ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2 3)'),
                ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2 4)') ) );

                st_asewkt
-------------------------
 MULTIPOINT(1 2 3,1 2 4)
 

Collect curves.

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_Collect( 'CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415,220227 150505,220227 150406)',
                'CIRCULARSTRING(220227 150406,2220227 150407,220227 150406)'));

                st_astext
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MULTICURVE(CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415,220227 150505,220227 150406),
 CIRCULARSTRING(220227 150406,2220227 150407,220227 150406))

Exemple: version utilisant un Tableau

Using an array constructor for a subquery.

SELECT ST_Collect( ARRAY( SELECT geom FROM sometable ) );

Using an array constructor for values.

SELECT ST_AsText(  ST_Collect(
                ARRAY[ ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)'),
                        ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(3 4, 4 5)') ] )) As wktcollect;

--wkt collect --
MULTILINESTRING((1 2,3 4),(3 4,4 5))

Exemple: version utilisant l'Agrégat Spatial

Creating multiple collections by grouping geometries in a table.

SELECT stusps, ST_Collect(f.geom) as geom
         FROM (SELECT stusps, (ST_Dump(geom)).geom As geom
                                FROM
                                somestatetable ) As f
        GROUP BY stusps

Voir aussi

ST_Dump, ST_AsBinary


Name

ST_LineFromMultiPoint — Crée une LineString à partir d'une géométrie MultiPoint.

Synopsis

geometry ST_LineFromMultiPoint(geometry aMultiPoint);

Description

Crée une LineString à partir d'une géométrie MultiPoint.

Use ST_MakeLine to create lines from Point or LineString inputs.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

Crée une LineString à partir d'une géométrie MultiPoint.

--Create a 3d line string from a 3d multipoint
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_LineFromMultiPoint(ST_GeomFromEWKT('MULTIPOINT(1 2 3, 4 5 6, 7 8 9)')));
--result--
LINESTRING(1 2 3,4 5 6,7 8 9)

Voir aussi

ST_AsEWKT, ST_AsKML


Name

ST_MakeEnvelope — Crée un polygone rectangulaire à partir des valeurs minimales et maximales données. Les coordonnées doivent être dans le SRS défini par le SRID.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakeEnvelope(double precision xmin, double precision ymin, double precision xmax, double precision ymax, integer srid=unknown);

Description

Crée un polygone rectangulaire à partir des valeurs minimales et maximales données. Les coordonnées doivent être dans le SRS défini par le SRID. Si aucun SRID n'est passé, la valeur 0 est prise.

Disponibilité: 1.5

Amélioration: 2.0: paramètre SRID devenu optionnel.

Exemple: Construire un polygone englobant

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_MakeEnvelope(10, 10, 11, 11, 4326));

st_asewkt
-----------
POLYGON((10 10, 10 11, 11 11, 11 10, 10 10))

Name

ST_MakeLine — Crée une LineString à partir d'une géométrie MultiPoint.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakeLine(geometry set geoms);

geometry ST_MakeLine(geometry geom1, geometry geom2);

geometry ST_MakeLine(geometry[] geoms_array);

Description

Creates a LineString containing the points of Point, MultiPoint, or LineString geometries. Other geometry types cause an error.

Variant 1: accepts two input geometries

Variant 2: accepts an array of geometries

Variant 3: aggregate function accepting a rowset of geometries. To ensure the order of the input geometries use ORDER BY in the function call, or a subquery with an ORDER BY clause.

Repeated nodes at the beginning of input LineStrings are collapsed to a single point. Repeated points in Point and MultiPoint inputs are not collapsed. ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints can be used to collapse repeated points from the output LineString.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Disponibilité: 2.0.0 - Support pour les paramètres de type linestring.

Disponibilité: 2.0.0 - Support pour les paramètres de type linestring.

Disponibilité: 1.4.0 - création de ST_MakeLine(geomarray). L'agrégat spatial ST_MakeLine amélioré pour supporter plus de points plus rapidement.

Exemple: version utilisant un Tableau

Create a line composed of two points.

SELECT ST_MakeLine(ARRAY(SELECT ST_Centroid(the_geom) FROM visit_locations ORDER BY visit_time));

--Making a 3d line with 3 3-d points
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_MakeLine(ARRAY[ST_MakePoint(1,2,3),
                                ST_MakePoint(3,4,5), ST_MakePoint(6,6,6)]));
                st_asewkt
-------------------------
LINESTRING(1 2 3,3 4 5,6 6 6)

Construit un objet BOX3D à partir des géométries 3D POINT données.

SELECT ST_AsEWKT( ST_MakeLine(ST_MakePoint(1,2,3), ST_MakePoint(3,4,5) ));

                st_asewkt
-------------------------
 LINESTRING(1 2 3,3 4 5)

Crée une LineString à partir d'une chaîne de polyligne encodée ( "Encoded Polyline")

select ST_AsText( ST_MakeLine( 'LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)', 'LINESTRING(2 2, 3 3)' ) );

          st_astext
-----------------------------
 LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,2 2,3 3)

Exemple: version utilisant un Tableau

Create a line from an array formed by a subquery with ordering.

SELECT ST_MakeLine( ARRAY( SELECT ST_Centroid(geom) FROM visit_locations ORDER BY visit_time) );

Create a 3D line from an array of 3D points

SELECT ST_MakeLine(ARRAY(SELECT ST_Centroid(the_geom) FROM visit_locations ORDER BY visit_time));

--Making a 3d line with 3 3-d points
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_MakeLine(ARRAY[ST_MakePoint(1,2,3),
                                ST_MakePoint(3,4,5), ST_MakePoint(6,6,6)]));
                st_asewkt
-------------------------
LINESTRING(1 2 3,3 4 5,6 6 6)

Exemple: version utilisant l'Agrégat Spatial

Dans cet exemple, une série de points GPS est utilisée pour créer une géométrie pour chaque trace GPS, la géométrie étant une linestring des points GPS ordonnées par le temps.

Using aggregate ORDER BY provides a correctly-ordered LineString.

SELECT gps.track_id, ST_MakeLine(gps.geom ORDER BY gps_time) As geom
        FROM gps_points As gps
        GROUP BY track_id;

Prior to PostgreSQL 9, ordering in a subquery can be used. However, sometimes the query plan may not respect the order of the subquery.

SELECT gps.track_id, ST_MakeLine(gps.geom) As geom
        FROM ( SELECT track_id, gps_time, geom
                        FROM gps_points ORDER BY track_id, gps_time ) As gps
        GROUP BY track_id;

Name

ST_MakePoint — Creates a 2D, 3DZ or 4D Point.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Point(float x_lon, float y_lat);

geometry ST_MakePointM(float x, float y, float m);

geometry ST_MakePoint(double precision x, double precision y, double precision z, double precision m);

Description

Construit un objet BOX2D à partir des géométries POINT données

Use ST_MakePointM to make points with XYM coordinates.

While not OGC-compliant, ST_MakePoint is faster and more precise than ST_GeomFromText and ST_PointFromText. It is also easier to use for numeric coordinate values.

[Note]

For geodetic coordinates, X is longitude and Y is latitude

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

--Return point with unknown SRID
SELECT ST_MakePoint(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829);

--Return point marked as WGS 84 long lat
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326);

--Return a 3D point (e.g. has altitude)
SELECT ST_MakePoint(1, 2,1.5);

--Get z of point
SELECT ST_Z(ST_MakePoint(1, 2,1.5));
result
-------
1.5

Name

ST_MakePointM — Crée un point à partir de coordonnées x et y.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakePointM(float x, float y, float m);

Description

Crée un point à partir de coordonnées x et y.

Use ST_MakePoint to make points with XY, XYZ, or XYZM coordinates.

[Note]

For geodetic coordinates, X is longitude and Y is latitude

Exemples

[Note]

ST_AsEWKT is used for text output because ST_AsText does not support M values.

Create point with unknown SRID.

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(  ST_MakePointM(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829, 10)  );

                                   st_asewkt
-----------------------------------------------
 POINTM(-71.1043443253471 42.3150676015829 10)

Crée un point à partir de coordonnées x et y.

SELECT ST_AsEWKT( ST_SetSRID(  ST_MakePointM(-71.104, 42.315, 10),  4326));

                                                st_asewkt
---------------------------------------------------------
SRID=4326;POINTM(-71.104 42.315 10)

Get measure of created point.

SELECT ST_M(  ST_MakePointM(-71.104, 42.315, 10)  );

result
-------
10

Name

ST_MakePolygon — Creates a Polygon from a shell and optional list of holes.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakePolygon(geometry linestring);

geometry ST_MakePolygon(geometry outerlinestring, geometry[] interiorlinestrings);

Description

Crée un Polygon à partir du contour donné. Les géométries en entrées doivent être des LINESTRING fermées.

Variant 1: Accepts one shell LineString.

Variant 2: Accepts a shell LineString and an array of inner (hole) LineStrings. A geometry array can be constructed using the PostgreSQL array_agg(), ARRAY[] or ARRAY() constructs.

[Note]

Cette fonction n'accepte pas de MULTILINESTRING. Utiliser ST_LineMerge or ST_Dump pour générer des LINESTRING.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemple: version utilisant un Tableau

Crée une LineString à partir d'une chaîne de polyligne encodée ( "Encoded Polyline")

SELECT ST_MLineFromText('MULTILINESTRING((1 2, 3 4), (4 5, 6 7))');

Create a Polygon from an open LineString, using ST_StartPoint and ST_AddPoint to close it.

SELECT ST_MakePolygon( ST_AddPoint(foo.open_line, ST_StartPoint(foo.open_line)) )
FROM (
  SELECT ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(75 29,77 29,77 29, 75 29)') As open_line) As foo;

Crée une LineString à partir d'une chaîne de polyligne encodée ( "Encoded Polyline")

SELECT ST_AsEWKT( ST_MakePolygon( 'LINESTRING(75.15 29.53 1,77 29 1,77.6 29.5 1, 75.15 29.53 1)'));

st_asewkt
-----------
POLYGON((75.15 29.53 1,77 29 1,77.6 29.5 1,75.15 29.53 1))

Create a Polygon from a LineString with measures

SELECT ST_AsEWKT( ST_MakePolygon( 'LINESTRINGM(75.15 29.53 1,77 29 1,77.6 29.5 2, 75.15 29.53 2)' ));

st_asewkt
----------
POLYGONM((75.15 29.53 1,77 29 1,77.6 29.5 2,75.15 29.53 2))

Examples: Outer shell with inner holes variant

Construction d'un anneaux avec un trou

SELECT ST_MakePolygon(
                ST_ExteriorRing(ST_Buffer(foo.line,10)),
        ARRAY[ST_Translate(foo.line,1,1),
                ST_ExteriorRing(ST_Buffer(ST_MakePoint(20,20),1)) ]
        )
FROM
        (SELECT ST_ExteriorRing(ST_Buffer(ST_MakePoint(10,10),10,10))
                As line )
                As foo;

Create a set of province boundaries with holes representing lakes. The input is a table of province Polygons/MultiPolygons and a table of water linestrings. Lines forming lakes are determined by using ST_IsClosed. The province linework is extracted by using ST_Boundary. As required by ST_MakePolygon, the boundary is forced to be a single LineString by using ST_LineMerge. (However, note that if a province has more than one region or has islands this will produce an invalid polygon.) Using a LEFT JOIN ensures all provinces are included even if they have no lakes.

[Note]

The CASE construct is used because passing a null array into ST_MakePolygon results in a NULL return value.

SELECT p.gid, p.province_name,
        CASE WHEN array_agg(w.geom) IS NULL
        THEN p.geom
        ELSE  ST_MakePolygon( ST_LineMerge(ST_Boundary(p.geom)),
                        array_agg(w.geom)) END
FROM
        provinces p LEFT JOIN waterlines w
                ON (ST_Within(w.geom, p.geom) AND ST_IsClosed(w.geom))
GROUP BY p.gid, p.province_name, p.geom;

Another technique is to utilize a correlated subquery and the ARRAY() constructor that converts a row set to an array.

SELECT p.gid, p.province_name,
                CASE WHEN
                        ST_Accum(w.the_geom) IS NULL THEN p.the_geom
                ELSE  ST_MakePolygon(ST_LineMerge(ST_Boundary(p.the_geom)), ST_Accum(w.the_geom)) END
        FROM
                provinces p LEFT JOIN waterlines w
                        ON (ST_Within(w.the_geom, p.the_geom) AND ST_IsClosed(w.the_geom))
        GROUP BY p.gid, p.province_name, p.the_geom;

        --Same example above but utilizing a correlated subquery
        --and PostgreSQL built-in ARRAY() function that converts a row set to an array

        SELECT p.gid,  p.province_name, CASE WHEN
                EXISTS(SELECT w.the_geom
                        FROM waterlines w
                        WHERE ST_Within(w.the_geom, p.the_geom)
                        AND ST_IsClosed(w.the_geom))
                THEN
                ST_MakePolygon(ST_LineMerge(ST_Boundary(p.the_geom)),
                        ARRAY(SELECT w.the_geom
                                FROM waterlines w
                                WHERE ST_Within(w.the_geom, p.the_geom)
                                AND ST_IsClosed(w.the_geom)))
                ELSE p.the_geom END As the_geom
        FROM
                provinces p;

Name

ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y and SRID values.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Point(float x_lon, float y_lat);

geometry ST_MakePointM(float x, float y, float m);

Description

Returns a Point with the given X and Y coordinate values. This is the SQL-MM equivalent for ST_MakePoint that takes just X and Y.

[Note]

For geodetic coordinates, X is longitude and Y is latitude

Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 6.1.2

Exemple: Géométrie

SELECT ST_Point( -71.104, 42.315);
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point( -71.104, 42.315),4326);

New in 3.2.0: With SRID specified

SELECT ST_Point( -71.104, 42.315, 4326);

Exemples: Géographie

Pre-PostGIS 3.2 syntax

SELECT CAST( ST_SetSRID(ST_Point( -71.104, 42.315), 4326) AS geography);

3.2 and on you can include the srid

SELECT CAST( ST_Point( -71.104, 42.315, 4326) AS geography);

PostgreSQL also provides the :: short-hand for casting

SELECT ST_Point( -71.104, 42.315, 4326)::geography;

If the point coordinates are not in a geodetic coordinate system (such as WGS84), then they must be reprojected before casting to a geography. In this example a point in Pennsylvania State Plane feet (SRID 2273) is projected to WGS84 (SRID 4326).

SELECT CAST(ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326) As geography);

Name

ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y, Z and SRID values.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakePoint(double precision x, double precision y, double precision z, double precision m);

Description

Retourne un point à partir des coordonnées données. Alias OGC de la fonction ST_MakePoint

Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry.

Exemples

SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)

Name

ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y, M and SRID values.

Synopsis

geometry ST_PointM(float x, float y, float m, integer srid=unknown);

Description

Retourne un point à partir des coordonnées données. Alias OGC de la fonction ST_MakePoint

Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry.

Exemples

SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)

Name

ST_Point — Creates a Point with X, Y, Z, M and SRID values.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakeEnvelope(double precision xmin, double precision ymin, double precision xmax, double precision ymax, integer srid=unknown);

Description

Retourne un point à partir des coordonnées données. Alias OGC de la fonction ST_MakePoint

Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry.

Exemples

SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)
SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-71.1043443253471, 42.3150676015829),4326)

Name

ST_Polygon — Creates a Polygon from a LineString with a specified SRID.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Polygon(geometry aLineString, integer srid);

Description

Returns a polygon built from the given LineString and sets the spatial reference system from the srid.

ST_Polygon is similar to ST_MakePolygon Variant 1 with the addition of setting the SRID.

, ST_MakePoint, ST_SetSRID

[Note]

Cette fonction n'accepte pas de MULTILINESTRING. Utiliser ST_LineMerge or ST_Dump pour générer des LINESTRING.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 8.3.2

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

Create a 2D polygon.

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_Polygon('LINESTRING(75 29, 77 29, 77 29, 75 29)'::geometry, 4326) );

-- result --
POLYGON((75 29, 77 29, 77 29, 75 29))

Create a 3D polygon.

SELECT ST_AsEWKT( ST_Polygon( ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(75 29 1, 77 29 2, 77 29 3, 75 29 1)'), 4326) );

-- result --
SRID=4326;POLYGON((75 29 1, 77 29 2, 77 29 3, 75 29 1))

Name

ST_MakeEnvelope — Creates a rectangular Polygon in Web Mercator (SRID:3857) using the XYZ tile system.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakePoint(double precision x, double precision y, double precision z, double precision m);

Description

Creates a rectangular Polygon in Web Mercator (SRID:3857) using the XYZ tile system. By default, the bounds are the in EPSG:3857 using the standard range of the Web Mercator system (-20037508.342789, 20037508.342789). The optional bounds parameter can be used to generate envelopes for any tiling scheme: provide a geometry that has the SRID and extent of the initial "zoom level zero" square within which the tile system is to be inscribed.

The optional margin parameter can be used to grow a tile by the given percentage, e.g. margin=0.125 grows the tile by 12.5%, which is equivalent to buffer=512 when extent is 4096, as used in ST_AsMVTGeom. This is useful to create a tile buffer -- to include data lying outside of the tile's visible area, but whose existence affects current tile's rendering. For example, a city name (a geopoint) could be near an edge of a tile, but the text would need to render on two tiles, even though the geopoint is located in the visible area of just one tile. Using an expanded tile in a search would include the city geopoint for both tiles. Use negative value to shrink the tile instead. Values less than -0.5 are prohibited because that would eliminate the tile completely. Do not use margin with ST_AsMVTGeom(). See example in ST_AsMVT.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 paramètre optionnel de srid par défaut ajouté.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Exemple: Construire un polygone englobant

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_TileEnvelope(2, 1, 1) );

 st_astext
------------------------------
 POLYGON((-10018754.1713945 0,-10018754.1713945 10018754.1713945,0 10018754.1713945,0 0,-10018754.1713945 0))

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_TileEnvelope(3, 1, 1, ST_MakeEnvelope(-180, -90, 180, 90, 4326) ) );

                      st_astext
------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((-135 45,-135 67.5,-90 67.5,-90 45,-135 45))

Voir aussi

ST_MakeEnvelope


Name

ST_HexagonGrid — Returns a set of hexagons and cell indices that completely cover the bounds of the geometry argument.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Point(float x_lon, float y_lat);

Description

Starts with the concept of a hexagon tiling of the plane. (Not a hexagon tiling of the globe, this is not the H3 tiling scheme.) For a given planar SRS, and a given edge size, starting at the origin of the SRS, there is one unique hexagonal tiling of the plane, Tiling(SRS, Size). This function answers the question: what hexagons in a given Tiling(SRS, Size) overlap with a given bounds.

The SRS for the output hexagons is the SRS provided by the bounds geometry.

Doubling or tripling the edge size of the hexagon generates a new parent tiling that fits with the origin tiling. Unfortunately, it is not possible to generate parent hexagon tilings that the child tiles perfectly fit inside.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Exemple: version utilisant un Tableau

To do a point summary against a hexagonal tiling, generate a hexagon grid using the extent of the points as the bounds, then spatially join to that grid.

SELECT COUNT(*), hexes.geom
FROM
    ST_HexagonGrid(
        10000,
        ST_SetSRID(ST_EstimatedExtent('pointtable', 'geom'), 3857)
    ) AS hexes
    INNER JOIN
    pointtable AS pts
    ON ST_Intersects(pts.geom, hexes.geom)
GROUP BY hexes.geom;

Exemple: Construire un polygone englobant

If we generate a set of hexagons for each polygon boundary and filter out those that do not intersect their hexagons, we end up with a tiling for each polygon.

Tiling states results in a hexagon coverage of each state, and multiple hexagons overlapping at the borders between states.

[Note]

The LATERAL keyword is implied for set-returning functions when referring to a prior table in the FROM list. So CROSS JOIN LATERAL, CROSS JOIN, or just plain , are equivalent constructs for this example.

SELECT admin1.gid, hex.geom
FROM
    admin1
    CROSS JOIN
    ST_HexagonGrid(100000, admin1.geom) AS hex
WHERE
    adm0_a3 = 'USA'
    AND
    ST_Intersects(admin1.geom, hex.geom)

Name

ST_Hexagon — Returns a single hexagon, using the provided edge size and cell coordinate within the hexagon grid space.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakePoint(double precision x, double precision y, double precision z, double precision m);

Description

Uses the same hexagon tiling concept as ST_HexagonGrid, but generates just one hexagon at the desired cell coordinate. Optionally, can adjust origin coordinate of the tiling, the default origin is at 0,0.

Hexagons are generated with no SRID set, so use ST_SetSRID to set the SRID to the one you expect.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Example: Creating a hexagon at the origin

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_SetSRID(ST_Hexagon(1.0, 0, 0), 3857));

POLYGON((-1 0,-0.5
         -0.866025403784439,0.5
         -0.866025403784439,1
         0,0.5
         0.866025403784439,-0.5
         0.866025403784439,-1 0)) 

Name

ST_SquareGrid — Returns a set of grid squares and cell indices that completely cover the bounds of the geometry argument.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Point(float x_lon, float y_lat);

Description

Starts with the concept of a square tiling of the plane. For a given planar SRS, and a given edge size, starting at the origin of the SRS, there is one unique square tiling of the plane, Tiling(SRS, Size). This function answers the question: what grids in a given Tiling(SRS, Size) overlap with a given bounds.

The SRS for the output squares is the SRS provided by the bounds geometry.

Doubling or edge size of the square generates a new parent tiling that perfectly fits with the original tiling. Standard web map tilings in mercator are just powers-of-two square grids in the mercator plane.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Example: Generating a 1 degree grid for a country

The grid will fill the whole bounds of the country, so if you want just squares that touch the country you will have to filter afterwards with ST_Intersects.

WITH grid AS (
SELECT (ST_SquareGrid(1, ST_Transform(geom,4326))).*
FROM admin0 WHERE name = 'Canada'
)
  SELEcT ST_AsText(geom)
  FROM grid

Example: Counting points in squares (using single chopped grid)

To do a point summary against a square tiling, generate a square grid using the extent of the points as the bounds, then spatially join to that grid. Note the estimated extent might be off from actual extent, so be cautious and at very least make sure you've analyzed your table.

SELECT COUNT(*), squares.geom
    FROM
    pointtable AS pts
    INNER JOIN
    ST_SquareGrid(
        1000,
        ST_SetSRID(ST_EstimatedExtent('pointtable', 'geom'), 3857)
    ) AS squares
    ON ST_Intersects(pts.geom, squares.geom)
    GROUP BY squares.geom

Example: Counting points in squares using set of grid per point

This yields the same result as the first example but will be slower for a large number of points

SELECT COUNT(*), squares.geom
    FROM
    pointtable AS pts
    INNER JOIN
    ST_SquareGrid(
        1000,
       pts.geom
    ) AS squares
    ON ST_Intersects(pts.geom, squares.geom)
    GROUP BY squares.geom

Name

ST_Square — Returns a single square, using the provided edge size and cell coordinate within the square grid space.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakePoint(double precision x, double precision y, double precision z, double precision m);

Description

Uses the same square tiling concept as ST_SquareGrid, but generates just one square at the desired cell coordinate. Optionally, can adjust origin coordinate of the tiling, the default origin is at 0,0.

Squares are generated with no SRID set, so use ST_SetSRID to set the SRID to the one you expect.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Example: Creating a square at the origin

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_MakeEnvelope(10, 10, 11, 11, 4326));

st_asewkt
-----------
POLYGON((10 10, 10 11, 11 11, 11 10, 10 10))

Name

ST_Letters — Returns the input letters rendered as geometry with a default start position at the origin and default text height of 100.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Letters(text letters, json font);

Description

Uses a built-in font to render out a string as a multipolygon geometry. The default text height is 100.0, the distance from the bottom of a descender to the top of a capital. The default start position places the start of the baseline at the origin. Over-riding the font involves passing in a json map, with a character as the key, and base64 encoded TWKB for the font shape, with the fonts having a height of 1000 units from the bottom of the descenders to the tops of the capitals.

The text is generated at the origin by default, so to reposition and resize the text, first apply the ST_Scale function and then apply the ST_Translate function.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Exemple: Construire un polygone englobant

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Letters('Yo'), 1);

Letters generated by ST_Letters

Example: Scaling and moving words

SELECT ST_Translate(ST_Scale(ST_Letters('Yo'), 10, 10), 100,100);

8.4. Fonctions d'accès aux géométries

GeometryType — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.
ST_Boundary — Renvoie l'ensemble formant la frontière finie de cette géométrie.
ST_BoundingDiagonal — Retourne la diagonale de la boîte englobante pour la géométrie en argument
ST_CoordDim — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.
ST_Dimension — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.
ST_Dump — Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the components of a geometry.
ST_NumPoints — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.
ST_NumPoints — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.
ST_NRings — Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the exterior and interior rings of a Polygon.
ST_EndPoint — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.
ST_Envelope — Renvoie une géométrie représentant la boite englobante de la géométrie donnée, sous forme de double precision (float8).
ST_ExteriorRing — Returns a LineString representing the exterior ring of a Polygon.
ST_GeometryN — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.
ST_GeometryType — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.
ST_HasArc — Tests if a geometry contains a circular arc
ST_InteriorRingN — Returns the Nth interior ring (hole) of a Polygon.
ST_IsClosed — Renvoie TRUE si les premier et dernier points de la LINESTRING sont identiques. Pour les surface polyhédriques, indique si la surface est surfacique (ouverte) ou volumétrique (fermée).
ST_IsCollection — Renvoie vrai si la géométrie est une geometrycollection vide, un polygon, un point etc.
ST_IsEmpty — Tests if a geometry is empty.
ST_IsPolygonCCW — Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented counter-clockwise and interior rings oriented clockwise.
ST_IsPolygonCW — Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented clockwise and interior rings oriented counter-clockwise.
ST_IsRing — Tests if a LineString is closed and simple.
ST_IsSimple — Renvoie (TRUE) si cette géométrie ne présente pas d'anomalie comme une auto intersection ou des segments tangentiels.
ST_M — Returns the M coordinate of a Point.
ST_MemSize — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.
ST_NDims — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.
ST_NPoints — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.
ST_NRings — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.
ST_NumGeometries — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique. Cela fonctionne pour tous les types de géométrie.
ST_NumInteriorRings — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.
ST_NumInteriorRing — Returns the number of interior rings (holes) of a Polygon. Aias for ST_NumInteriorRings
ST_NumPatches — Return the number of faces on a Polyhedral Surface. Will return null for non-polyhedral geometries.
ST_NumPoints — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.
ST_PatchN — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.
ST_PointN — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.
ST_Points — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.
ST_StartPoint — Returns the first point of a LineString.
ST_Summary — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.
ST_X — Returns the X coordinate of a Point.
ST_Y — Returns the Y coordinate of a Point.
ST_Z — Returns the Z coordinate of a Point.
ST_Zmflag — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées de la ST_Geometry.

Name

GeometryType — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.

Synopsis

text GeometryType(geometry geomA);

Description

Retourne le type de la géométrie, par exemple: 'LINESTRING', 'POLYGON', 'MULTIPOINT', etc.

OGC SPEC s2.1.1.1 - Retourne le nom du sous type instanciable de la géométrie. Le nom est retourné sous forme de texte.

[Note]

Cette fonction indique si la géométrie comporte une dimension de type mesure, en retournant un texte de de la forme 'POINTM'.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN, Triangles et surfaces polyhédriques.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

SELECT GeometryType(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(77.29 29.07,77.42 29.26,77.27 29.31,77.29 29.07)'));
 geometrytype
--------------
 LINESTRING
SELECT ST_GeometryType(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
                ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
                ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
                ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )'));
                        --result
                        POLYHEDRALSURFACE
                        
SELECT GeometryType(geom) as result
  FROM
    (SELECT
       ST_GeomFromEWKT('TIN (((
                0 0 0,
                0 0 1,
                0 1 0,
                0 0 0
            )), ((
                0 0 0,
                0 1 0,
                1 1 0,
                0 0 0
            ))
            )')  AS geom
    ) AS g;
 result
--------
 TIN    

Voir aussi

ST_GeometryType


Name

ST_Boundary — Renvoie l'ensemble formant la frontière finie de cette géométrie.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Boundary(geometry geomA);

Description

Renvoie l'ensemble formant la frontière finie de cette géométrie. La notion de frontière est définie dans la section 3.12.3.2 des spécifications OGC. Le résultat de cette fonction est un ensemble topologiquement fermé, représentable avec les types de base, comme décrit dans la section 3.12.2 des spécifications OGC.

Réalisé par le module GEOS

[Note]

Avant la version 2.0.0, cette fonction renvoie une exception si une GEOMETRYCOLLECTION est passée en paramètre. A partir de la 2.0.0, la fonction renvoie null (paramètre non supporté).

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. OGC SPEC s2.1.1.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.14

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Amélioration : 2.1.0 introduction du support pour Triangle

Changed: 3.2.0 support for TIN, does not use geos, does not linearize curves

Exemples

Linestring with boundary points overlaid

SELECT ST_Boundary(geom)
FROM (SELECT 'LINESTRING(100 150,50 60, 70 80, 160 170)'::geometry As geom) As f;
                                

-- ST_AsText output
MULTIPOINT((100 150),(160 170))

polygon holes with boundary multilinestring

SELECT ST_Boundary(geom)
FROM (SELECT
'POLYGON (( 10 130, 50 190, 110 190, 140 150, 150 80, 100 10, 20 40, 10 130 ),
        ( 70 40, 100 50, 120 80, 80 110, 50 90, 70 40 ))'::geometry As geom) As f;
                                

-- ST_AsText output
MULTILINESTRING((10 130,50 190,110 190,140 150,150 80,100 10,20 40,10 130),
        (70 40,100 50,120 80,80 110,50 90,70 40))

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Boundary(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 1,0 0, -1 1)')));
st_astext
-----------
MULTIPOINT((1 1),(-1 1))

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Boundary(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 1,0 0, -1 1, 1 1))')));
st_astext
----------
LINESTRING(1 1,0 0,-1 1,1 1)

--Using a 3d polygon
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Boundary(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYGON((1 1 1,0 0 1, -1 1 1, 1 1 1))')));

st_asewkt
-----------------------------------
LINESTRING(1 1 1,0 0 1,-1 1 1,1 1 1)

--Using a 3d multilinestring
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Boundary(ST_GeomFromEWKT('MULTILINESTRING((1 1 1,0 0 0.5, -1 1 1),(1 1 0.5,0 0 0.5, -1 1 0.5, 1 1 0.5) )')));

st_asewkt
----------
MULTIPOINT((-1 1 1),(1 1 0.75))

Name

ST_BoundingDiagonal — Retourne la diagonale de la boîte englobante pour la géométrie en argument

Synopsis

geometry ST_BoundingDiagonal(geometry geom, boolean fits=false);

Description

Returns the diagonal of the supplied geometry's bounding box as a LineString. The diagonal is a 2-point LineString with the minimum values of each dimension in its start point and the maximum values in its end point. If the input geometry is empty, the diagonal line is a LINESTRING EMPTY.

The optional fits parameter specifies if the best fit is needed. If false, the diagonal of a somewhat larger bounding box can be accepted (which is faster to compute for geometries with many vertices). In either case, the bounding box of the returned diagonal line always covers the input geometry.

The returned geometry retains the SRID and dimensionality (Z and M presence) of the input geometry.

[Note]

In degenerate cases (i.e. a single vertex in input) the returned linestring will be formally invalid (no interior). The result is still topologically valid.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.

Exemples

-- Obtenir le X minimum d'une zone tampon autour d'un point
SELECT ST_X(ST_StartPoint(ST_BoundingDiagonal(
  ST_Buffer(ST_MakePoint(0,0),10)
)));
 st_x
------
  -10
                

Name

ST_CoordDim — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.

Synopsis

integer ST_CoordDim(geometry geomA);

Description

Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.

Alias SQL/MM pour la fonction ST_NDims

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.3

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

SELECT ST_CoordDim('CIRCULARSTRING(1 2 3, 1 3 4, 5 6 7, 8 9 10, 11 12 13)');
                        ---result--
                                3

                                SELECT ST_CoordDim(ST_Point(1,2));
                        --result--
                                2

                

Voir aussi

ST_NDims


Name

ST_Dimension — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.

Synopsis

integer ST_Dimension(geometry g);

Description

La dimension intrinsèque de l'objet Geometry, inférieure ou égale à la dimension des coordonnées. Section 2.1.1.1 des spécifications OGC. Retourne 0 pour un POINT, 1 pour une LINESTRING, 2 pour un POLYGON, et la dimesion maximale des éléments d'une GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Renvoie NULL pour les géométries vides (GEOMETRY EMPTY).

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.2

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN et surfaces polyhédriques. Ne renvoie plus une exception si une GEOMETRY EMPTY est passée.

[Note]

Avant la version 2.0.0, cette fonction renvoie une exception si une GEOMETRY EMPT est passée en paramètre.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

SELECT ST_Dimension('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(LINESTRING(1 1,0 0),POINT(0 0))');
ST_Dimension
-----------
1

Voir aussi

ST_NDims


Name

ST_Dump — Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the components of a geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Envelope(geometry g1);

Description

A set-returning function (SRF) that extracts the components of a geometry. It returns a set of geometry_dump rows, each containing a geometry (geom field) and an array of integers (path field).

For an atomic geometry type (POINT,LINESTRING,POLYGON) a single record is returned with an empty path array and the input geometry as geom. For a collection or multi-geometry a record is returned for each of the collection components, and the path denotes the position of the component inside the collection.

ST_Dump is useful for expanding geometries. It is the inverse of a ST_GeomCollFromText / GROUP BY, in that it creates new rows. For example it can be use to expand MULTIPOLYGONS into POLYGONS.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN, Triangles et surfaces polyhédriques.

Availability: PostGIS 1.0.0RC1. Requires PostgreSQL 7.3 or higher.

[Note]

Prior to 1.3.4, this function crashes if used with geometries that contain CURVES. This is fixed in 1.3.4+

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT sometable.field1, sometable.field1,
      (ST_Dump(sometable.geom)).geom AS geom
FROM sometable;

-- Break a compound curve into its constituent linestrings and circularstrings
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(a.geom), ST_HasArc(a.geom)
  FROM ( SELECT (ST_Dump(p_geom)).geom AS geom
         FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('COMPOUNDCURVE(CIRCULARSTRING(0 0, 1 1, 1 0),(1 0, 0 1))') AS p_geom) AS b
        ) AS a;
          st_asewkt          | st_hasarc
-----------------------------+----------
 CIRCULARSTRING(0 0,1 1,1 0) | t
 LINESTRING(1 0,0 1)         | f
(2 rows)

Exemples TIN, Triangle et Surfaces Polyhédriques

-- Polyhedral surface example
-- Break a Polyhedral surface into its faces
SELECT (a.p_geom).path[1] As path, ST_AsEWKT((a.p_geom).geom) As geom_ewkt
  FROM (SELECT ST_Dump(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE(
((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),  ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)),  ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1))
)') ) AS p_geom )  AS a;

 path |                geom_ewkt
------+------------------------------------------
    1 | POLYGON((0 0 0,0 0 1,0 1 1,0 1 0,0 0 0))
    2 | POLYGON((0 0 0,0 1 0,1 1 0,1 0 0,0 0 0))
    3 | POLYGON((0 0 0,1 0 0,1 0 1,0 0 1,0 0 0))
    4 | POLYGON((1 1 0,1 1 1,1 0 1,1 0 0,1 1 0))
    5 | POLYGON((0 1 0,0 1 1,1 1 1,1 1 0,0 1 0))
    6 | POLYGON((0 0 1,1 0 1,1 1 1,0 1 1,0 0 1))
-- TIN --
SELECT (g.gdump).path, ST_AsEWKT((g.gdump).geom) as wkt
  FROM
    (SELECT
       ST_Dump( ST_GeomFromEWKT('TIN (((
                0 0 0,
                0 0 1,
                0 1 0,
                0 0 0
            )), ((
                0 0 0,
                0 1 0,
                1 1 0,
                0 0 0
            ))
            )') ) AS gdump
    ) AS g;
-- result --
 path |                 wkt
------+-------------------------------------
 {1}  | TRIANGLE((0 0 0,0 0 1,0 1 0,0 0 0))
 {2}  | TRIANGLE((0 0 0,0 1 0,1 1 0,0 0 0))

Name

ST_NumPoints — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.

Synopsis

geometry ST_StartPoint(geometry geomA);

Description

A set-returning function (SRF) that extracts the coordinates (vertices) of a geometry. It returns a set of geometry_dump rows, each containing a geometry (geom field) and an array of integers (path field).

  • the geom field POINTs represent the coordinates of the supplied geometry.

  • the path field (an integer[]) is an index enumerating the coordinate positions in the elements of the supplied geometry. The indices are 1-based. For example, for a LINESTRING the paths are {i} where i is the nth coordinate in the LINESTRING. For a POLYGON the paths are {i,j} where i is the ring number (1 is outer; inner rings follow) and j is the coordinate position in the ring.

To obtain a single geometry containing the coordinates use ST_Points.

Enhanced: 2.1.0 Faster speed. Reimplemented as native-C.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN, Triangles et surfaces polyhédriques.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Classic Explode a Table of LineStrings into nodes

SELECT edge_id, (dp).path[1] As index, ST_AsText((dp).geom) As wktnode
FROM (SELECT 1 As edge_id
        , ST_DumpPoints(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4, 10 10)')) AS dp
     UNION ALL
     SELECT 2 As edge_id
        , ST_DumpPoints(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(3 5, 5 6, 9 10)')) AS dp
   ) As foo;
 edge_id | index |    wktnode
---------+-------+--------------
       1 |     1 | POINT(1 2)
       1 |     2 | POINT(3 4)
       1 |     3 | POINT(10 10)
       2 |     1 | POINT(3 5)
       2 |     2 | POINT(5 6)
       2 |     3 | POINT(9 10)

Exemples

SELECT path, ST_AsText(geom)
FROM (
  SELECT (ST_DumpPoints(g.geom)).*
  FROM
    (SELECT
       'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(
          POINT ( 0 1 ),
          LINESTRING ( 0 3, 3 4 ),
          POLYGON (( 2 0, 2 3, 0 2, 2 0 )),
          POLYGON (( 3 0, 3 3, 6 3, 6 0, 3 0 ),
                   ( 5 1, 4 2, 5 2, 5 1 )),
          MULTIPOLYGON (
                  (( 0 5, 0 8, 4 8, 4 5, 0 5 ),
                   ( 1 6, 3 6, 2 7, 1 6 )),
                  (( 5 4, 5 8, 6 7, 5 4 ))
          )
        )'::geometry AS geom
    ) AS g
  ) j;

   path    | st_astext
-----------+------------
 {1,1}     | POINT(0 1)
 {2,1}     | POINT(0 3)
 {2,2}     | POINT(3 4)
 {3,1,1}   | POINT(2 0)
 {3,1,2}   | POINT(2 3)
 {3,1,3}   | POINT(0 2)
 {3,1,4}   | POINT(2 0)
 {4,1,1}   | POINT(3 0)
 {4,1,2}   | POINT(3 3)
 {4,1,3}   | POINT(6 3)
 {4,1,4}   | POINT(6 0)
 {4,1,5}   | POINT(3 0)
 {4,2,1}   | POINT(5 1)
 {4,2,2}   | POINT(4 2)
 {4,2,3}   | POINT(5 2)
 {4,2,4}   | POINT(5 1)
 {5,1,1,1} | POINT(0 5)
 {5,1,1,2} | POINT(0 8)
 {5,1,1,3} | POINT(4 8)
 {5,1,1,4} | POINT(4 5)
 {5,1,1,5} | POINT(0 5)
 {5,1,2,1} | POINT(1 6)
 {5,1,2,2} | POINT(3 6)
 {5,1,2,3} | POINT(2 7)
 {5,1,2,4} | POINT(1 6)
 {5,2,1,1} | POINT(5 4)
 {5,2,1,2} | POINT(5 8)
 {5,2,1,3} | POINT(6 7)
 {5,2,1,4} | POINT(5 4)
(29 rows)

Exemples TIN, Triangle et Surfaces Polyhédriques

-- Polyhedral surface cube --
SELECT (g.gdump).path, ST_AsEWKT((g.gdump).geom) as wkt
  FROM
    (SELECT
       ST_DumpPoints(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )') ) AS gdump
    ) AS g;
-- result --
  path   |     wkt
---------+--------------
 {1,1,1} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {1,1,2} | POINT(0 0 1)
 {1,1,3} | POINT(0 1 1)
 {1,1,4} | POINT(0 1 0)
 {1,1,5} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {2,1,1} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {2,1,2} | POINT(0 1 0)
 {2,1,3} | POINT(1 1 0)
 {2,1,4} | POINT(1 0 0)
 {2,1,5} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {3,1,1} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {3,1,2} | POINT(1 0 0)
 {3,1,3} | POINT(1 0 1)
 {3,1,4} | POINT(0 0 1)
 {3,1,5} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {4,1,1} | POINT(1 1 0)
 {4,1,2} | POINT(1 1 1)
 {4,1,3} | POINT(1 0 1)
 {4,1,4} | POINT(1 0 0)
 {4,1,5} | POINT(1 1 0)
 {5,1,1} | POINT(0 1 0)
 {5,1,2} | POINT(0 1 1)
 {5,1,3} | POINT(1 1 1)
 {5,1,4} | POINT(1 1 0)
 {5,1,5} | POINT(0 1 0)
 {6,1,1} | POINT(0 0 1)
 {6,1,2} | POINT(1 0 1)
 {6,1,3} | POINT(1 1 1)
 {6,1,4} | POINT(0 1 1)
 {6,1,5} | POINT(0 0 1)
(30 rows)
-- Triangle --
SELECT (g.gdump).path, ST_AsText((g.gdump).geom) as wkt
  FROM
    (SELECT
       ST_DumpPoints( ST_GeomFromEWKT('TRIANGLE ((
                0 0,
                0 9,
                9 0,
                0 0
            ))') ) AS gdump
    ) AS g;
-- result --
 path |    wkt
------+------------
 {1}  | POINT(0 0)
 {2}  | POINT(0 9)
 {3}  | POINT(9 0)
 {4}  | POINT(0 0)
-- TIN --
SELECT (g.gdump).path, ST_AsEWKT((g.gdump).geom) as wkt
  FROM
    (SELECT
       ST_DumpPoints( ST_GeomFromEWKT('TIN (((
                0 0 0,
                0 0 1,
                0 1 0,
                0 0 0
            )), ((
                0 0 0,
                0 1 0,
                1 1 0,
                0 0 0
            ))
            )') ) AS gdump
    ) AS g;
-- result --
  path   |     wkt
---------+--------------
 {1,1,1} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {1,1,2} | POINT(0 0 1)
 {1,1,3} | POINT(0 1 0)
 {1,1,4} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {2,1,1} | POINT(0 0 0)
 {2,1,2} | POINT(0 1 0)
 {2,1,3} | POINT(1 1 0)
 {2,1,4} | POINT(0 0 0)
(8 rows)

Name

ST_NumPoints — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.

Synopsis

geometry ST_StartPoint(geometry geomA);

Description

A set-returning function (SRF) that extracts the segments of a geometry. It returns a set of geometry_dump rows, each containing a geometry (geom field) and an array of integers (path field).

  • Renvoie TRUE si la LINESTRING est à la fois fermée et simple.

  • the path field (an integer[]) is an index enumerating the segment start point positions in the elements of the supplied geometry. The indices are 1-based. For example, for a LINESTRING the paths are {i} where i is the nth segment start point in the LINESTRING. For a POLYGON the paths are {i,j} where i is the ring number (1 is outer; inner rings follow) and j is the segment start point position in the ring.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT path, ST_AsText(geom)
FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DumpSegments(g.geom)).*
    FROM (SELECT 'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(
    LINESTRING(1 1, 3 3, 4 4),
    POLYGON((5 5, 6 6, 7 7, 5 5))
)'::geometry AS geom
        ) AS g
) j;

  path   │      st_astext
---------------------------------
 {1,1}   │ LINESTRING(1 1,3 3)
 {1,2}   │ LINESTRING(3 3,4 4)
 {2,1,1} │ LINESTRING(5 5,6 6)
 {2,1,2} │ LINESTRING(6 6,7 7)
 {2,1,3} │ LINESTRING(7 7,5 5)
(5 rows)

Exemples TIN, Triangle et Surfaces Polyhédriques

-- Triangle --
SELECT path, ST_AsText(geom)
FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DumpSegments(g.geom)).*
    FROM (SELECT 'TRIANGLE((
        0 0,
        0 9,
        9 0,
        0 0
    ))'::geometry AS geom
        ) AS g
) j;

 path  │      st_astext
 ---------------------------------
 {1,1} │ LINESTRING(0 0,0 9)
 {1,2} │ LINESTRING(0 9,9 0)
 {1,3} │ LINESTRING(9 0,0 0)
(3 rows)
-- TIN --
SELECT path, ST_AsEWKT(geom)
FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DumpSegments(g.geom)).*
    FROM (SELECT 'TIN(((
        0 0 0,
        0 0 1,
        0 1 0,
        0 0 0
    )), ((
        0 0 0,
        0 1 0,
        1 1 0,
        0 0 0
    ))
    )'::geometry AS geom
        ) AS g
) j;

  path   │        st_asewkt
  ---------------------------------
 {1,1,1} │ LINESTRING(0 0 0,0 0 1)
 {1,1,2} │ LINESTRING(0 0 1,0 1 0)
 {1,1,3} │ LINESTRING(0 1 0,0 0 0)
 {2,1,1} │ LINESTRING(0 0 0,0 1 0)
 {2,1,2} │ LINESTRING(0 1 0,1 1 0)
 {2,1,3} │ LINESTRING(1 1 0,0 0 0)
(6 rows)

Name

ST_NRings — Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the exterior and interior rings of a Polygon.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ExteriorRing(geometry a_polygon);

Description

A set-returning function (SRF) that extracts the rings of a polygon. It returns a set of geometry_dump rows, each containing a geometry (geom field) and an array of integers (path field).

The geom field contains each ring as a POLYGON. The path field is an integer array of length 1 containing the polygon ring index. The exterior ring (shell) has index 0. The interior rings (holes) have indices of 1 and higher.

[Note]

Ne support pas les MULTIPOLYGON. Utiliser en association avec ST_Dump pour les MULTIPOLYGON

Availability: PostGIS 1.1.3. Requires PostgreSQL 7.3 or higher.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

General form of query.

SELECT polyTable.field1, polyTable.field1,
          (ST_DumpRings(polyTable.geom)).geom As geom
FROM polyTable;

A polygon with a single hole.

SELECT path, ST_AsEWKT(geom) As geom
        FROM ST_DumpRings(
                ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYGON((-8149064 5133092 1,-8149064 5132986 1,-8148996 5132839 1,-8148972 5132767 1,-8148958 5132508 1,-8148941 5132466 1,-8148924 5132394 1,
                -8148903 5132210 1,-8148930 5131967 1,-8148992 5131978 1,-8149237 5132093 1,-8149404 5132211 1,-8149647 5132310 1,-8149757 5132394 1,
                -8150305 5132788 1,-8149064 5133092 1),
                (-8149362 5132394 1,-8149446 5132501 1,-8149548 5132597 1,-8149695 5132675 1,-8149362 5132394 1))')
                )  as foo;
 path |                                            geom
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  {0} | POLYGON((-8149064 5133092 1,-8149064 5132986 1,-8148996 5132839 1,-8148972 5132767 1,-8148958 5132508 1,
          |          -8148941 5132466 1,-8148924 5132394 1,
          |          -8148903 5132210 1,-8148930 5131967 1,
          |          -8148992 5131978 1,-8149237 5132093 1,
          |          -8149404 5132211 1,-8149647 5132310 1,-8149757 5132394 1,-8150305 5132788 1,-8149064 5133092 1))
  {1} | POLYGON((-8149362 5132394 1,-8149446 5132501 1,
          |          -8149548 5132597 1,-8149695 5132675 1,-8149362 5132394 1))

Name

ST_EndPoint — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Envelope(geometry g1);

Description

Retourne le dernier point d'une géométrie LINESTRING ou CIRCULARLINESTRING sous la forme d'un POINT.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.1.4

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

[Note]

Changement: 2.0.0: ne supporte plus les géométries multilinestring avec un seul élément. Dans les anciennes version de PostGIS, une multilinestring ne contenant qu'une ligne renvoyait le point d'origine de la ligne. A partir de la version 2.0.0, la fonction renvoie NULL comme avec toute autre multilinestring. L'ancien comportement n'était pas documenté. Le nouveau comportement peut renvoyer null si l'on considère que la table contient des LINESTRING (multilinestring avec un seul élément)

Exemples

End point of a LineString

postgis=# SELECT ST_AsText(ST_EndPoint('LINESTRING(1 1, 2 2, 3 3)'::geometry));
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(3 3)

End point of a non-LineString is NULL

SELECT ST_EndPoint('POINT(1 1)'::geometry) IS NULL AS is_null;
  is_null
----------
 t

End point of a 3D LineString

--3d endpoint
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_EndPoint('LINESTRING(1 1 2, 1 2 3, 0 0 5)'));
  st_asewkt
--------------
 POINT(0 0 5)

Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_EndPoint('CIRCULARSTRING(5 2,-3 1.999999, -2 1, -4 2, 6 3)'::geometry));
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(6 3)

Name

ST_Envelope — Renvoie une géométrie représentant la boite englobante de la géométrie donnée, sous forme de double precision (float8).

Synopsis

geometry ST_Envelope(geometry g1);

Description

Renvoie une géométrie représentant la boite englobante de la géométrie donnée, sous forme de float8. Le polygone est défini par les coins de la boite englobante ((MINX, MINY), (MINX, MAXY), (MAXX, MAXY), (MAXX, MINY), (MINX, MINY)). (PostGIS ajoute également les coordonnées ZMIN/ZMAX).

Les cas dégénérés (lignes verticales, points) renvoient une géométrie de dimension inférieure à celle d'un POLYGON, par exemple POINT ou LINESTRING.

Disponibilité: 1.5.0 changement pour renvoyer un type double précision à la place de float4

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.15

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Envelope('POINT(1 3)'::geometry));
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(1 3)
(1 row)


SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Envelope('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 3)'::geometry));
                   st_astext
--------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0,0 3,1 3,1 0,0 0))
(1 row)


SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Envelope('POLYGON((0 0, 0 1, 1.0000001 1, 1.0000001 0, 0 0))'::geometry));
                                                  st_astext
--------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1.00000011920929 1,1.00000011920929 0,0 0))
(1 row)
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Envelope('POLYGON((0 0, 0 1, 1.0000000001 1, 1.0000000001 0, 0 0))'::geometry));
                                                  st_astext
--------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1.00000011920929 1,1.00000011920929 0,0 0))
(1 row)

SELECT Box3D(geom), Box2D(geom), ST_AsText(ST_Envelope(geom)) As envelopewkt
        FROM (SELECT 'POLYGON((0 0, 0 1000012333334.34545678, 1.0000001 1, 1.0000001 0, 0 0))'::geometry As geom) As foo;


        

Envelope of a point and linestring.

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Envelope(
                ST_Collect(
                        ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(55 75,125 150)'),
                                ST_Point(20, 80))
                                )) As wktenv;
wktenv
-----------
POLYGON((20 75,20 150,125 150,125 75,20 75))

Name

ST_ExteriorRing — Returns a LineString representing the exterior ring of a Polygon.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ExteriorRing(geometry a_polygon);

Description

Retourne une ligne représentant l'envelope extérieure du POLYGON. Renvoie NULL si la géométrie n'est pas un polygone.

[Note]

Ne support pas les MULTIPOLYGON. Utiliser en association avec ST_Dump pour les MULTIPOLYGON

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. 2.1.5.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 8.2.3, 8.3.3

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

--If you have a table of polygons
SELECT gid, ST_ExteriorRing(the_geom) AS ering
FROM sometable;

--If you have a table of MULTIPOLYGONs
--and want to return a MULTILINESTRING composed of the exterior rings of each polygon
SELECT gid, ST_Collect(ST_ExteriorRing(the_geom)) AS erings
        FROM (SELECT gid, (ST_Dump(the_geom)).geom As the_geom
                        FROM sometable) As foo
GROUP BY gid;

--3d Example
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(
        ST_ExteriorRing(
        ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYGON((0 0 1, 1 1 1, 1 2 1, 1 1 1, 0 0 1))')
        )
);

st_asewkt
---------
LINESTRING(0 0 1,1 1 1,1 2 1,1 1 1,0 0 1)

Name

ST_GeometryN — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeometryN(geometry geomA, integer n);

Description

Retourne la nième géométrie, n commençant à 1, si la géométrie passée en paramètre est de type GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, (MULTI)POINT, (MULTI)LINESTRING, MULTICURVE ou (MULTI)POLYGON, POLYHEDRALSURFACE. Renvoie NULL dans les autres cas.

[Note]

L'index commence à 1 pour respecter les spécificarions OGC depuis la version 0.8.0. Dans les versions antérieures, l'index commençait à 0.

[Note]

Si toutes les géométries composant une géométrie doivent être extraites, il faut mieux utiliser la fonction ST_Dump, qui est plus efficace et accepte les types simples en paramètre.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN, Triangles et surfaces polyhédriques.

Changement: 2.0.0. Les versions antérieures renvoient NULL pour les géometries simples (un seul objet). Renvoie désormais la géométrie pour le cas ST_GeometryN(..,1).

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 9.1.5

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

--Extracting a subset of points from a 3d multipoint
SELECT n, ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeometryN(geom, n)) As geomewkt
FROM (
VALUES (ST_GeomFromEWKT('MULTIPOINT((1 2 7), (3 4 7), (5 6 7), (8 9 10))') ),
( ST_GeomFromEWKT('MULTICURVE(CIRCULARSTRING(2.5 2.5,4.5 2.5, 3.5 3.5), (10 11, 12 11))') )
        )As foo(geom)
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(1,100) n
WHERE n <= ST_NumGeometries(geom);

 n |               geomewkt
---+-----------------------------------------
 1 | POINT(1 2 7)
 2 | POINT(3 4 7)
 3 | POINT(5 6 7)
 4 | POINT(8 9 10)
 1 | CIRCULARSTRING(2.5 2.5,4.5 2.5,3.5 3.5)
 2 | LINESTRING(10 11,12 11)


--Extracting all geometries (useful when you want to assign an id)
SELECT gid, n, ST_GeometryN(geom, n)
FROM sometable CROSS JOIN generate_series(1,100) n
WHERE n <= ST_NumGeometries(geom);

Exemples TIN, Triangle et Surfaces Polyhédriques

-- Polyhedral surface example
-- Break a Polyhedral surface into its faces
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeometryN(p_geom,3)) As geom_ewkt
  FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE(
((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)),
((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)),
((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1))
)')  AS p_geom )  AS a;

                geom_ewkt
------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0 0,1 0 0,1 0 1,0 0 1,0 0 0))
-- TIN --
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeometryN(geom,2)) as wkt
  FROM
    (SELECT
       ST_GeomFromEWKT('TIN (((
                0 0 0,
                0 0 1,
                0 1 0,
                0 0 0
            )), ((
                0 0 0,
                0 1 0,
                1 1 0,
                0 0 0
            ))
            )')  AS geom
    ) AS g;
-- result --
                 wkt
-------------------------------------
 TRIANGLE((0 0 0,0 1 0,1 1 0,0 0 0))

Name

ST_GeometryType — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.

Synopsis

text ST_GeometryType(geometry g1);

Description

Renvoie le type de la géométrie sous forme de texte, par exemple: 'ST_LineString', 'ST_Polygon','ST_MultiPolygon' etc. Cette fonction diffère de GeometryType(geometry) par la casse du texte renvoyé et par le préfixe ST_ en début de texte. N'indique pas si la géométrie comporte une dimension MESURE.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support des surfaces polyhédriques.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.4

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_GeometryType(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(77.29 29.07,77.42 29.26,77.27 29.31,77.29 29.07)'));
                        --result
                        ST_LineString
SELECT ST_GeometryType(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
                ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
                ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
                ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )'));
                        --result
                        ST_PolyhedralSurface
SELECT ST_GeometryType(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
                ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
                ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
                ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )'));
                        --result
                        ST_PolyhedralSurface
SELECT ST_GeometryType(geom) as result
  FROM
    (SELECT
       ST_GeomFromEWKT('TIN (((
                0 0 0,
                0 0 1,
                0 1 0,
                0 0 0
            )), ((
                0 0 0,
                0 1 0,
                1 1 0,
                0 0 0
            ))
            )')  AS geom
    ) AS g;
 result
--------
 ST_Tin    

Voir aussi

GeometryType


Name

ST_HasArc — Tests if a geometry contains a circular arc

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsEmpty(geometry geomA);

Description

Renvoie vrai si la géométrie est une geometrycollection vide, un polygon, un point etc.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_HasArc(ST_Collect('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4, 5 6)', 'CIRCULARSTRING(1 1, 2 3, 4 5, 6 7, 5 6)'));
                st_hasarc
                --------
                t
                

Name

ST_InteriorRingN — Returns the Nth interior ring (hole) of a Polygon.

Synopsis

geometry ST_InteriorRingN(geometry a_polygon, integer n);

Description

Retourne la nième ligne intérieure du polygone passé en paramètre. Renvoie NULL si la géométrie n'est pas un polygone ou si l'index ne correspond pas à un intérieur.

[Note]

Ne support pas les MULTIPOLYGON. Utiliser en association avec ST_Dump pour les MULTIPOLYGON

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 8.2.6, 8.3.5

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_InteriorRingN(the_geom, 1)) As the_geom
FROM (SELECT ST_BuildArea(
                ST_Collect(ST_Buffer(ST_Point(1,2), 20,3),
                        ST_Buffer(ST_Point(1, 2), 10,3))) As the_geom
                )  as foo
                

Name

ST_IsClosed — Renvoie TRUE si les premier et dernier points de la LINESTRING sont identiques. Pour les surface polyhédriques, indique si la surface est surfacique (ouverte) ou volumétrique (fermée).

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsClosed(geometry g);

Description

Renvoie TRUE si les premier et dernier points de la LINESTRING sont identiques. Pour les surface polyhédriques, indique si la surface est surfacique (ouverte) ou volumétrique (fermée).

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.1.5, 9.3.3

[Note]

La norme SQL-MM indique que le résultat de la fonction ST_IsClosed(NULL) doit être 0 ; PostGIS renvoie NULL.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support des surfaces polyhédriques.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples: points et lignes

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsClosed('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)'::geometry);
 st_isclosed
-------------
 f
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsClosed('LINESTRING(0 0, 0 1, 1 1, 0 0)'::geometry);
 st_isclosed
-------------
 t
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsClosed('MULTILINESTRING((0 0, 0 1, 1 1, 0 0),(0 0, 1 1))'::geometry);
 st_isclosed
-------------
 f
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsClosed('POINT(0 0)'::geometry);
 st_isclosed
-------------
 t
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsClosed('MULTIPOINT((0 0), (1 1))'::geometry);
 st_isclosed
-------------
 t
(1 row)

Exemples: surfaces polyhédriques

-- A cube --
                SELECT ST_IsClosed(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
                ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
                ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
                ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )'));

 st_isclosed
-------------
 t


 -- Same as cube but missing a side --
 SELECT ST_IsClosed(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
                ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
                ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
                ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)) )'));

 st_isclosed
-------------
 f

Voir aussi

ST_IsRing


Name

ST_IsCollection — Renvoie vrai si la géométrie est une geometrycollection vide, un polygon, un point etc.

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsCollection(geometry g);

Description

Renvoie TRUE le type de la géométrie est soit:

  • GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

  • MULTI{POINT,POLYGON,LINESTRING,CURVE,SURFACE}

  • COMPOUNDCURVE

[Note]

Cette fonction analyse le type de la géométrie. Renvoie TRUE pour les collections vides ou ne contenant q'un seul élément.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsCollection('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)'::geometry);
 st_iscollection
-------------
 f
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsCollection('MULTIPOINT EMPTY'::geometry);
 st_iscollection
-------------
 t
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsCollection('MULTIPOINT((0 0))'::geometry);
 st_iscollection
-------------
 t
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsCollection('MULTIPOINT((0 0), (42 42))'::geometry);
 st_iscollection
-------------
 t
(1 row)

postgis=# SELECT ST_IsCollection('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(0 0))'::geometry);
 st_iscollection
-------------
 t
(1 row)

Name

ST_IsEmpty — Tests if a geometry is empty.

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsEmpty(geometry geomA);

Description

Renvoie vrai si la géométrie est une géométrie vide. Si le résultat est vrai alors cette géométrie représente une geometrycollection vide, un polygon, un point etc.

[Note]

La norme SQL-MM stipule que ST_IsEmpty(NULL) doit renvoyer 0. PostGIS renvoie NULL.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.7

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

[Warning]

Changement: 2.0.0 dans les version précédentes de PostGIS ST_GeomFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(EMPTY)') etait autorisé. C'est désormais interdit dans PostGIS 2.0.0 pour respecter la norme SQL/MM.

Exemples

SELECT ST_IsEmpty(ST_GeomFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION EMPTY'));
 st_isempty
------------
 t
(1 row)

 SELECT ST_IsEmpty(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON EMPTY'));
 st_isempty
------------
 t
(1 row)

SELECT ST_IsEmpty(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 2, 3 4, 5 6, 1 2))'));

 st_isempty
------------
 f
(1 row)

 SELECT ST_IsEmpty(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 2, 3 4, 5 6, 1 2))')) = false;
 ?column?
----------
 t
(1 row)

 SELECT ST_IsEmpty(ST_GeomFromText('CIRCULARSTRING EMPTY'));
  st_isempty
------------
 t
(1 row)


                

Name

ST_IsPolygonCCW — Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented counter-clockwise and interior rings oriented clockwise.

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsPolygonCCW ( geometry geom );

Description

Returns true if all polygonal components of the input geometry use a counter-clockwise orientation for their exterior ring, and a clockwise direction for all interior rings.

Returns true if the geometry has no polygonal components.

[Note]

Closed linestrings are not considered polygonal components, so you would still get a true return by passing a single closed linestring no matter its orientation.

[Note]

If a polygonal geometry does not use reversed orientation for interior rings (i.e., if one or more interior rings are oriented in the same direction as an exterior ring) then both ST_IsPolygonCW and ST_IsPolygonCCW will return false.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.


Name

ST_IsPolygonCW — Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented clockwise and interior rings oriented counter-clockwise.

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsPolygonCW ( geometry geom );

Description

Returns true if all polygonal components of the input geometry use a clockwise orientation for their exterior ring, and a counter-clockwise direction for all interior rings.

Returns true if the geometry has no polygonal components.

[Note]

Closed linestrings are not considered polygonal components, so you would still get a true return by passing a single closed linestring no matter its orientation.

[Note]

If a polygonal geometry does not use reversed orientation for interior rings (i.e., if one or more interior rings are oriented in the same direction as an exterior ring) then both ST_IsPolygonCW and ST_IsPolygonCCW will return false.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.


Name

ST_IsRing — Tests if a LineString is closed and simple.

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsRing(geometry g);

Description

Renvoie TRUE si cette LINESTRING est à la fois ST_IsClosed (ST_StartPoint(g) ~= ST_Endpoint(g)) et ST_IsSimple (pas d'auto intersection).

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. 2.1.5.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.1.6

[Note]

La norme SQL-MM stipule que ST_IsRing(NULL) doit renvoyer 0. PostGIS renvoie NULL.

Exemples

SELECT ST_IsRing(the_geom), ST_IsClosed(the_geom), ST_IsSimple(the_geom)
FROM (SELECT 'LINESTRING(0 0, 0 1, 1 1, 1 0, 0 0)'::geometry AS the_geom) AS foo;
 st_isring | st_isclosed | st_issimple
-----------+-------------+-------------
 t         | t           | t
(1 row)

SELECT ST_IsRing(the_geom), ST_IsClosed(the_geom), ST_IsSimple(the_geom)
FROM (SELECT 'LINESTRING(0 0, 0 1, 1 0, 1 1, 0 0)'::geometry AS the_geom) AS foo;
 st_isring | st_isclosed | st_issimple
-----------+-------------+-------------
 f         | t           | f
(1 row)

Name

ST_IsSimple — Renvoie (TRUE) si cette géométrie ne présente pas d'anomalie comme une auto intersection ou des segments tangentiels.

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsSimple(geometry geomA);

Description

Renvoie TRUE si cette géométrie ne présente pas d'anomalie comme une auto intersection ou des segments tangentiels. Pour plus d'information sur les notions OGC de simplicité et de validité, se référer à "Ensuring OpenGIS compliancy of geometries"

[Note]

La norme SQL-MM indique que le résultat de la fonction ST_IsSimple(NULL) doit être 0 ; PostGIS renvoie NULL.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.8

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_IsSimple(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 2, 3 4, 5 6, 1 2))'));
 st_issimple
-------------
 t
(1 row)

 SELECT ST_IsSimple(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 1,2 2,2 3.5,1 3,1 2,2 1)'));
 st_issimple
-------------
 f
(1 row)

Voir aussi

ST_IsValid


Name

ST_M — Returns the M coordinate of a Point.

Synopsis

float ST_M(geometry a_point);

Description

Retourne les coordonnées M d'un point, ou NULL si non disponible. L'entrée doit être un point.

[Note]

This is not (yet) part of the OGC spec, but is listed here to complete the point coordinate extractor function list.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_M(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2 3 4)'));
st_m
------
4
(1 row)

                

Name

ST_MemSize — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.

Synopsis

integer ST_NRings(geometry geomA);

Description

Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.

This complements the PostgreSQL built-in database object functions pg_column_size, pg_size_pretty, pg_relation_size, pg_total_relation_size.

[Note]

pg_relation_size which gives the byte size of a table may return byte size lower than ST_MemSize. This is because pg_relation_size does not add toasted table contribution and large geometries are stored in TOAST tables.

pg_total_relation_size - includes, the table, the toasted tables, and the indexes.

pg_column_size returns how much space a geometry would take in a column considering compression, so may be lower than ST_MemSize

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Changed: 2.2.0 name changed to ST_MemSize to follow naming convention.

Exemples

--Return how much byte space Boston takes up  in our Mass data set
SELECT pg_size_pretty(SUM(ST_MemSize(geom))) as totgeomsum,
pg_size_pretty(SUM(CASE WHEN town = 'BOSTON' THEN ST_MemSize(geom) ELSE 0 END)) As bossum,
CAST(SUM(CASE WHEN town = 'BOSTON' THEN ST_MemSize(geom) ELSE 0 END)*1.00 /
                SUM(ST_MemSize(geom))*100 As numeric(10,2)) As perbos
FROM towns;

totgeomsum        bossum        perbos
----------        ------        ------
1522 kB                30 kB        1.99


SELECT ST_MemSize(ST_GeomFromText('CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415,220227 150505,220227 150406)'));

---
73

--What percentage of our table is taken up by just the geometry
SELECT pg_total_relation_size('public.neighborhoods') As fulltable_size, sum(ST_MemSize(geom)) As geomsize,
sum(ST_MemSize(geom))*1.00/pg_total_relation_size('public.neighborhoods')*100 As pergeom
FROM neighborhoods;
fulltable_size geomsize  pergeom
------------------------------------------------
262144         96238         36.71188354492187500000
        

Name

ST_NDims — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.

Synopsis

integer ST_NDims(geometry g1);

Description

Returns the coordinate dimension of the geometry. PostGIS supports 2 - (x,y) , 3 - (x,y,z) or 2D with measure - x,y,m, and 4 - 3D with measure space x,y,z,m

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_NDims(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)')) As d2point,
ST_NDims(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 1 2)')) As d3point,
ST_NDims(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINTM(1 1 0.5)')) As d2pointm;

d2point | d3point | d2pointm
---------+---------+----------
2 | 3 | 3
                        

Name

ST_NPoints — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.

Synopsis

integer ST_NPoints(geometry g1);

Description

Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique. Cela fonctionne pour tous les types de géométrie.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support des surfaces polyhédriques.

[Note]

Prior to 1.3.4, this function crashes if used with geometries that contain CURVES. This is fixed in 1.3.4+

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_NPoints(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(77.29 29.07,77.42 29.26,77.27 29.31,77.29 29.07)'));
--result
4

--Polygon dans un espace en 3 Dimension
SELECT ST_NPoints(ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(77.29 29.07 1,77.42 29.26 0,77.27 29.31 -1,77.29 29.07 3)'))
--result
4

Voir aussi

ST_NumPoints


Name

ST_NRings — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.

Synopsis

integer ST_NRings(geometry geomA);

Description

If the geometry is a polygon or multi-polygon returns the number of rings. Unlike NumInteriorRings, it counts the outer rings as well.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_NRings(the_geom) As Nrings, ST_NumInteriorRings(the_geom) As ninterrings
                                        FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((1 2, 3 4, 5 6, 1 2))') As the_geom) As foo;
         nrings | ninterrings
--------+-------------
          1 |           0
(1 row)

Name

ST_NumGeometries — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique. Cela fonctionne pour tous les types de géométrie.

Synopsis

integer ST_NumGeometries(geometry geom);

Description

Returns the number of Geometries. If geometry is a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (or MULTI*) return the number of geometries, for single geometries will return 1, otherwise return NULL.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN, Triangles et surfaces polyhédriques.

Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions this would return NULL if the geometry was not a collection/MULTI type. 2.0.0+ now returns 1 for single geometries e.g POLYGON, LINESTRING, POINT.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 9.1.4

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

--Prior versions would have returned NULL for this -- in 2.0.0 this returns 1
SELECT ST_NumGeometries(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(77.29 29.07,77.42 29.26,77.27 29.31,77.29 29.07)'));
--result
1

--Geometry Collection Example - multis count as one geom in a collection
SELECT ST_NumGeometries(ST_GeomFromEWKT('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTIPOINT((-2 3),(-2 2)),
LINESTRING(5 5 ,10 10),
POLYGON((-7 4.2,-7.1 5,-7.1 4.3,-7 4.2)))'));
--result
3

Name

ST_NumInteriorRings — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.

Synopsis

integer ST_NumInteriorRings(geometry a_polygon);

Description

Return the number of interior rings of a polygon geometry. Return NULL if the geometry is not a polygon.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 8.2.5

Changed: 2.0.0 - in prior versions it would allow passing a MULTIPOLYGON, returning the number of interior rings of first POLYGON.

Exemples

--If you have a regular polygon
SELECT gid, field1, field2, ST_NumInteriorRings(geom) AS numholes
FROM sometable;

--If you have multipolygons
--And you want to know the total number of interior rings in the MULTIPOLYGON
SELECT gid, field1, field2, SUM(ST_NumInteriorRings(geom)) AS numholes
FROM (SELECT gid, field1, field2, (ST_Dump(geom)).geom As geom
        FROM sometable) As foo
GROUP BY gid, field1,field2;
                        

Name

ST_NumInteriorRing — Returns the number of interior rings (holes) of a Polygon. Aias for ST_NumInteriorRings

Synopsis

integer ST_NumInteriorRing(geometry a_polygon);


Name

ST_NumPatches — Return the number of faces on a Polyhedral Surface. Will return null for non-polyhedral geometries.

Synopsis

integer ST_NumPatches(geometry g1);

Description

Return the number of faces on a Polyhedral Surface. Will return null for non-polyhedral geometries. This is an alias for ST_NumGeometries to support MM naming. Faster to use ST_NumGeometries if you don't care about MM convention.

Disponibilité : 2.0.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: ?

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_NumPatches(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
                ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
                ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
                ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )'));
                --result
                6
                

Name

ST_NumPoints — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.

Synopsis

integer ST_NumPoints(geometry g1);

Description

Return the number of points in an ST_LineString or ST_CircularString value. Prior to 1.4 only works with linestrings as the specs state. From 1.4 forward this is an alias for ST_NPoints which returns number of vertexes for not just linestrings. Consider using ST_NPoints instead which is multi-purpose and works with many geometry types.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.2.4

Exemples

SELECT ST_NumPoints(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(77.29 29.07,77.42 29.26,77.27 29.31,77.29 29.07)'));
--result
4
                

Voir aussi

ST_NPoints


Name

ST_PatchN — Renvoie le type de la géométrie passée en paramètre.

Synopsis

geometry ST_PatchN(geometry geomA, integer n);

Description

Returns the 1-based Nth geometry (face) if the geometry is a POLYHEDRALSURFACE or POLYHEDRALSURFACEM. Otherwise, returns NULL. This returns the same answer as ST_GeometryN for PolyhedralSurfaces. Using ST_GeometryN is faster.

[Note]

Index is 1-based.

[Note]

Si toutes les géométries composant une géométrie doivent être extraites, ST_Dump sera plus efficace.

Disponibilité : 2.0.0

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: ?

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

--Extract the 2nd face of the polyhedral surface
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_PatchN(geom, 2)) As geomewkt
FROM (
VALUES (ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
        ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
        ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
        ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )')) ) As foo(geom);

              geomewkt
---+-----------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0 0,0 1 0,1 1 0,1 0 0,0 0 0))

Name

ST_PointN — Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.

Synopsis

geometry ST_PointN(geometry a_linestring, integer n);

Description

Return the Nth point in a single linestring or circular linestring in the geometry. Negative values are counted backwards from the end of the LineString, so that -1 is the last point. Returns NULL if there is no linestring in the geometry.

[Note]

Index is 1-based as for OGC specs since version 0.8.0. Backward indexing (negative index) is not in OGC Previous versions implemented this as 0-based instead.

[Note]

If you want to get the Nth point of each LineString in a MultiLineString, use in conjunction with ST_Dump

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.2.5, 7.3.5

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

[Note]

Changed: 2.0.0 no longer works with single geometry multilinestrings. In older versions of PostGIS -- a single line multilinestring would work happily with this function and return the start point. In 2.0.0 it just returns NULL like any other multilinestring.

Changed: 2.3.0 : negative indexing available (-1 is last point)

Exemples

-- Extract all POINTs from a LINESTRING
SELECT ST_AsText(
   ST_PointN(
          column1,
          generate_series(1, ST_NPoints(column1))
   ))
FROM ( VALUES ('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 2 2)'::geometry) ) AS foo;

 st_astext
------------
 POINT(0 0)
 POINT(1 1)
 POINT(2 2)
(3 rows)

--Example circular string
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointN(ST_GeomFromText('CIRCULARSTRING(1 2, 3 2, 1 2)'), 2));

 st_astext
------------
 POINT(3 2)
(1 row)

SELECT ST_AsText(f)
FROM ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 2 2)') AS g
  ,ST_PointN(g, -2) AS f; -- 1 based index

    st_astext
-----------------
 POINT Z (1 1 1)
(1 row)

Voir aussi

ST_NPoints


Name

ST_Points — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Points( geometry geom );

Description

Returns a MultiPoint containing all the coordinates of a geometry. Duplicate points are preserved, including the start and end points of ring geometries. (If desired, duplicate points can be removed by calling ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints on the result).

To obtain information about the position of each coordinate in the parent geometry use ST_NumPoints.

M and Z coordinates are preserved if present.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Availability: 2.3.0

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Points('POLYGON Z ((30 10 4,10 30 5,40 40 6, 30 10))'));

--result
MULTIPOINT Z ((30 10 4),(10 30 5),(40 40 6),(30 10 4))
                        

Name

ST_StartPoint — Returns the first point of a LineString.

Synopsis

geometry ST_StartPoint(geometry geomA);

Description

Retourne le dernier point d'une géométrie LINESTRING ou CIRCULARLINESTRING sous la forme d'un POINT.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.1.3

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

[Note]

Enhanced: 3.2.0 returns a point for all geometries. Prior behavior returns NULLs if input was not a LineString.

Changement: 2.0.0: ne supporte plus les géométries multilinestring avec un seul élément. Dans les anciennes version de PostGIS, une multilinestring ne contenant qu'une ligne renvoyait le point d'origine de la ligne. A partir de la version 2.0.0, la fonction renvoie NULL comme avec toute autre multilinestring. L'ancien comportement n'était pas documenté. Le nouveau comportement peut renvoyer null si l'on considère que la table contient des LINESTRING (multilinestring avec un seul élément)

Exemples

Start point of a LineString

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_StartPoint('LINESTRING(0 1, 0 2)'::geometry));
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(0 1)

Start point of a non-LineString is NULL

SELECT ST_StartPoint('POINT(0 1)'::geometry) IS NULL AS is_null;
  is_null
----------
 t

Start point of a 3D LineString

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_StartPoint('LINESTRING(0 1 1, 0 2 2)'::geometry));
 st_asewkt
------------
 POINT(0 1 1)

Retourne le nombre de points d'un objet géométrique dans une valeur ST_LineString ou ST_CircularString.

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_StartPoint('CIRCULARSTRING(5 2,-3 1.999999, -2 1, -4 2, 6 3)'::geometry));
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(5 2)

Name

ST_Summary — Retourne le nombre de points (vertex) d'un objet géométrique.

Synopsis

text ST_Summary(geometry g);

text ST_Summary(geography g);

Description

Renvoie l'ensemble formant la frontière finie de cette géométrie.

Flags shown square brackets after the geometry type have the following meaning:

  • M : possède une ordonnée M

  • Z : possède une coordonnée Z

  • B : possède une bounding box en cache

  • G: is geodetic (geography)

  • S: has spatial reference system

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Availability: 1.2.2

Enhanced: 2.0.0 added support for geography

Enhanced: 2.1.0 S flag to denote if has a known spatial reference system

Enhanced: 2.2.0 Added support for TIN and Curves

Exemples

=# SELECT ST_Summary(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)')) as geom,
        ST_Summary(ST_GeogFromText('POLYGON((0 0, 1 1, 1 2, 1 1, 0 0))')) geog;
            geom             |          geog
-----------------------------+--------------------------
 LineString[B] with 2 points | Polygon[BGS] with 1 rings
                             | ring 0 has 5 points
                             :
(1 row)


=# SELECT ST_Summary(ST_GeogFromText('LINESTRING(0 0 1, 1 1 1)')) As geog_line,
        ST_Summary(ST_GeomFromText('SRID=4326;POLYGON((0 0 1, 1 1 2, 1 2 3, 1 1 1, 0 0 1))')) As geom_poly;
;
           geog_line             |        geom_poly
-------------------------------- +--------------------------
 LineString[ZBGS] with 2 points | Polygon[ZBS] with 1 rings
                                :    ring 0 has 5 points
                                :
(1 row)


Name

ST_X — Returns the X coordinate of a Point.

Synopsis

float ST_X(geometry a_point);

Description

Retourne les coordonnées M d'un point, ou NULL si non disponible. L'entrée doit être un point.

[Note]

To get the minimum and maximum X value of geometry coordinates use the functions ST_XMin and ST_XMax.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 6.1.3

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_X(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2 3 4)'));
 st_x
------
        1
(1 row)

SELECT ST_Y(ST_Centroid(ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(1 2 3 4, 1 1 1 1)')));
 st_y
------
  1.5
(1 row)

                

Name

ST_Y — Returns the Y coordinate of a Point.

Synopsis

float ST_Y(geometry a_point);

Description

Retourne les coordonnées M d'un point, ou NULL si non disponible. L'entrée doit être un point.

[Note]

To get the minimum and maximum Y value of geometry coordinates use the functions ST_YMin and ST_YMax.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 6.1.4

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_Y(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2 3 4)'));
st_y
------
2
(1 row)

SELECT ST_Y(ST_Centroid(ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(1 2 3 4, 1 1 1 1)')));
st_y
------
1.5
(1 row)


                

Name

ST_Z — Returns the Z coordinate of a Point.

Synopsis

float ST_Z(geometry a_point);

Description

Retourne les coordonnées M d'un point, ou NULL si non disponible. L'entrée doit être un point.

[Note]

To get the minimum and maximum Z value of geometry coordinates use the functions ST_ZMin and ST_ZMax.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_Z(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2 3 4)'));
 st_z
------
        3
(1 row)

                

Name

ST_Zmflag — Retourne la dimension des coordonnées de la ST_Geometry.

Synopsis

smallint ST_Zmflag(geometry geomA);

Description

Retourne la dimension des coordonnées d'une valeur ST_Geometry.

Values are: 0 = 2D, 1 = 3D-M, 2 = 3D-Z, 3 = 4D.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_Zmflag(ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)'));
 st_zmflag
-----------
                 0

SELECT ST_Zmflag(ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRINGM(1 2 3, 3 4 3)'));
 st_zmflag
-----------
                 1

SELECT ST_Zmflag(ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(1 2 3, 3 4 3, 5 6 3)'));
 st_zmflag
-----------
                 2
SELECT ST_Zmflag(ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2 3 4)'));
 st_zmflag
-----------
                 3

8.5. Geometry Editors

Abstract

These functions create modified geometries by changing type, structure or vertices.

ST_AddPoint — Add a point to a LineString.
ST_CollectionExtract — Given a geometry collection, returns a multi-geometry containing only elements of a specified type.
ST_CollectionHomogenize — Returns the simplest representation of a geometry collection.
ST_CurveToLine — Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
ST_Scroll — Change start point of a closed LineString.
ST_FlipCoordinates — Returns a version of a geometry with X and Y axis flipped.
ST_Force2D — Force the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode".
ST_Force3D — Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.
ST_Force3DZ — Force the geometries into XYZ mode.
ST_Force3DM — Force the geometries into XYM mode.
ST_Force4D — Force the geometries into XYZM mode.
ST_ForcePolygonCCW — Orients all exterior rings counter-clockwise and all interior rings clockwise.
ST_ForceCollection — Convert the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.
ST_ForcePolygonCW — Orients all exterior rings clockwise and all interior rings counter-clockwise.
ST_ForceSFS — Force the geometries to use SFS 1.1 geometry types only.
ST_ForceRHR — Force the orientation of the vertices in a polygon to follow the Right-Hand-Rule.
ST_ForceCurve — Upcast a geometry into its curved type, if applicable.
ST_LineToCurve — Converts a linear geometry to a curved geometry.
ST_Multi — Return the geometry as a MULTI* geometry.
ST_Normalize — Return the geometry in its canonical form.
ST_QuantizeCoordinates — Sets least significant bits of coordinates to zero
ST_RemovePoint — Remove a point from a linestring.
ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints — Returns a version of a geometry with duplicate points removed.
ST_Reverse — Return the geometry with vertex order reversed.
ST_Segmentize — Return a modified geometry/geography having no segment longer than the given distance.
ST_SetPoint — Replace point of a linestring with a given point.
ST_ShiftLongitude — Shifts the longitude coordinates of a geometry between -180..180 and 0..360.
ST_WrapX — Wrap a geometry around an X value.
ST_SnapToGrid — Snap all points of the input geometry to a regular grid.
ST_Snap — Snap segments and vertices of input geometry to vertices of a reference geometry.
ST_SwapOrdinates — Returns a version of the given geometry with given ordinate values swapped.

Name

ST_AddPoint — Add a point to a LineString.

Synopsis

geometry ST_AddPoint(geometry linestring, geometry point);

geometry ST_AddPoint(geometry linestring, geometry point, integer position = -1);

Description

Adds a point to a LineString before the index position (using a 0-based index). If the position parameter is omitted or is -1 the point is appended to the end of the LineString.

Disponibilité: 1.1.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

Add a point to the end of a 3D line

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_AddPoint('LINESTRING(0 0 1, 1 1 1)', ST_MakePoint(1, 2, 3)));

    st_asewkt
    ----------
    LINESTRING(0 0 1,1 1 1,1 2 3)

Guarantee all lines in a table are closed by adding the start point of each line to the end of the line only for those that are not closed.

UPDATE sometable
SET geom = ST_AddPoint(geom, ST_StartPoint(geom))
FROM sometable
WHERE ST_IsClosed(geom) = false;

Name

ST_CollectionExtract — Given a geometry collection, returns a multi-geometry containing only elements of a specified type.

Synopsis

geometry ST_CollectionExtract(geometry collection);

geometry ST_CollectionExtract(geometry collection, integer type);

Description

Given a geometry collection, returns a homogeneous multi-geometry.

If the type is not specified, returns a multi-geometry containing only geometries of the highest dimension. So polygons are preferred over lines, which are preferred over points.

If the type is specified, returns a multi-geometry containing only that type. If there are no sub-geometries of the right type, an EMPTY geometry is returned. Only points, lines and polygons are supported. The type numbers are:

  • 1 == POINT

  • 2 == LINESTRING

  • 3 == POLYGON

For atomic geometry inputs, the geometry is retured unchanged if the input type matches the requested type. Otherwise, the result is an EMPTY geometry of the specified type. If required, these can be converted to multi-geometries using ST_Multi.

[Warning]

MultiPolygon results are not checked for validity. If the polygon components are adjacent or overlapping the result will be invalid. (For example, this can occur when applying this function to an ST_Split result.) This situation can be checked with ST_IsValid and repaired with ST_MakeValid.

Disponibilité: 1.5.0

[Note]

Prior to 1.5.3 this function returned atomic inputs unchanged, no matter type. In 1.5.3 non-matching single geometries returned a NULL result. In 2.0.0 non-matching single geometries return an EMPTY result of the requested type.

Exemples

Extract highest-dimension type:

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionExtract(
        'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION( POINT(0 0), LINESTRING(1 1, 2 2) )'));
    st_astext
    ---------------
    MULTILINESTRING((1 1, 2 2))

Extract points (type 1 == POINT):

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionExtract(
        'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(0 0)))',
        1 ));
    st_astext
    ---------------
    MULTIPOINT((0 0))

Extract lines (type 2 == LINESTRING):

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionExtract(
        'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)),LINESTRING(2 2, 3 3))',
        2 ));
    st_astext
    ---------------
    MULTILINESTRING((0 0, 1 1), (2 2, 3 3))

Name

ST_CollectionHomogenize — Returns the simplest representation of a geometry collection.

Synopsis

geometry ST_CollectionHomogenize(geometry collection);

Description

Given a geometry collection, returns the "simplest" representation of the contents.

  • Homogeneous (uniform) collections are returned as the appropriate multi-geometry.

  • Heterogeneous (mixed) collections are flattened into a single GeometryCollection.

  • Collections containing a single atomic element are returned as that element.

  • Atomic geometries are returned unchanged. If required, these can be converted to a multi-geometry using ST_Multi.

[Warning]

This function does not ensure that the result is valid. In particular, a collection containing adjacent or overlapping Polygons will create an invalid MultiPolygon. This situation can be checked with ST_IsValid and repaired with ST_MakeValid.

Disponibilité: 2.0.0

Exemples

Single-element collection converted to an atomic geometry

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionHomogenize('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(0 0))'));

        st_astext
        ------------
        POINT(0 0)

Nested single-element collection converted to an atomic geometry:

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionHomogenize('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTIPOINT((0 0)))'));

        st_astext
        ------------
        POINT(0 0)

Collection converted to a multi-geometry:

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionHomogenize('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(0 0),POINT(1 1))'));

        st_astext
        ---------------------
        MULTIPOINT((0 0),(1 1))

Nested heterogeneous collection flattened to a GeometryCollection:

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionHomogenize('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(0 0), GEOMETRYCOLLECTION( LINESTRING(1 1, 2 2)))'));

        st_astext
        ---------------------
        GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(0 0),LINESTRING(1 1,2 2))

Collection of Polygons converted to an (invalid) MultiPolygon:

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CollectionHomogenize('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POLYGON ((10 50, 50 50, 50 10, 10 10, 10 50)), POLYGON ((90 50, 90 10, 50 10, 50 50, 90 50)))'));

        st_astext
        ---------------------
        MULTIPOLYGON(((10 50,50 50,50 10,10 10,10 50)),((90 50,90 10,50 10,50 50,90 50)))

Name

ST_CurveToLine — Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_CurveToLine(geometry curveGeom, float tolerance, integer tolerance_type, integer flags);

Description

Converts a CIRCULAR STRING to regular LINESTRING or CURVEPOLYGON to POLYGON or MULTISURFACE to MULTIPOLYGON. Useful for outputting to devices that can't support CIRCULARSTRING geometry types

Converts a given geometry to a linear geometry. Each curved geometry or segment is converted into a linear approximation using the given `tolerance` and options (32 segments per quadrant and no options by default).

The 'tolerance_type' argument determines interpretation of the `tolerance` argument. It can take the following values:

  • 0 (default): Tolerance is max segments per quadrant.

  • 1: Tolerance is max-deviation of line from curve, in source units.

  • 2: Tolerance is max-angle, in radians, between generating radii.

The 'flags' argument is a bitfield. 0 by default. Supported bits are:

  • 1: Symmetric (orientation idependent) output.

  • 2: Retain angle, avoids reducing angles (segment lengths) when producing symmetric output. Has no effect when Symmetric flag is off.

Availability: 1.3.0

Enhanced: 2.4.0 added support for max-deviation and max-angle tolerance, and for symmetric output.

Enhanced: 3.0.0 implemented a minimum number of segments per linearized arc to prevent topological collapse.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.1.7

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CurveToLine(ST_GeomFromText('CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415,220227 150505,220227 150406)')));

--Result --
 LINESTRING(220268 150415,220269.95064912 150416.539364228,220271.823415575 150418.17258804,220273.613787707 150419.895736857,
 220275.317452352 150421.704659462,220276.930305234 150423.594998003,220278.448460847 150425.562198489,
 220279.868261823 150427.60152176,220281.186287736 150429.708054909,220282.399363347 150431.876723113,
 220283.50456625 150434.10230186,220284.499233914 150436.379429536,220285.380970099 150438.702620341,220286.147650624 150441.066277505,
 220286.797428488 150443.464706771,220287.328738321 150445.892130112,220287.740300149 150448.342699654,
 220288.031122486 150450.810511759,220288.200504713 150453.289621251,220288.248038775 150455.77405574,
 220288.173610157 150458.257830005,220287.977398166 150460.734960415,220287.659875492 150463.199479347,
 220287.221807076 150465.64544956,220286.664248262 150468.066978495,220285.988542259 150470.458232479,220285.196316903 150472.81345077,
 220284.289480732 150475.126959442,220283.270218395 150477.39318505,220282.140985384 150479.606668057,
 220280.90450212 150481.762075989,220279.5637474 150483.85421628,220278.12195122 150485.87804878,
 220276.582586992 150487.828697901,220274.949363179 150489.701464356,220273.226214362 150491.491836488,
 220271.417291757 150493.195501133,220269.526953216 150494.808354014,220267.559752731 150496.326509628,
 220265.520429459 150497.746310603,220263.41389631 150499.064336517,220261.245228106 150500.277412127,
 220259.019649359 150501.38261503,220256.742521683 150502.377282695,220254.419330878 150503.259018879,
 220252.055673714 150504.025699404,220249.657244448 150504.675477269,220247.229821107 150505.206787101,
 220244.779251566 150505.61834893,220242.311439461 150505.909171266,220239.832329968 150506.078553494,
 220237.347895479 150506.126087555,220234.864121215 150506.051658938,220232.386990804 150505.855446946,
 220229.922471872 150505.537924272,220227.47650166 150505.099855856,220225.054972724 150504.542297043,
 220222.663718741 150503.86659104,220220.308500449 150503.074365683,
 220217.994991777 150502.167529512,220215.72876617 150501.148267175,
 220213.515283163 150500.019034164,220211.35987523 150498.7825509,
 220209.267734939 150497.441796181,220207.243902439 150496,
 220205.293253319 150494.460635772,220203.420486864 150492.82741196,220201.630114732 150491.104263143,
 220199.926450087 150489.295340538,220198.313597205 150487.405001997,220196.795441592 150485.437801511,
 220195.375640616 150483.39847824,220194.057614703 150481.291945091,220192.844539092 150479.123276887,220191.739336189 150476.89769814,
 220190.744668525 150474.620570464,220189.86293234 150472.297379659,220189.096251815 150469.933722495,
 220188.446473951 150467.535293229,220187.915164118 150465.107869888,220187.50360229 150462.657300346,
 220187.212779953 150460.189488241,220187.043397726 150457.710378749,220186.995863664 150455.22594426,
 220187.070292282 150452.742169995,220187.266504273 150450.265039585,220187.584026947 150447.800520653,
 220188.022095363 150445.35455044,220188.579654177 150442.933021505,220189.25536018 150440.541767521,
 220190.047585536 150438.18654923,220190.954421707 150435.873040558,220191.973684044 150433.60681495,
 220193.102917055 150431.393331943,220194.339400319 150429.237924011,220195.680155039 150427.14578372,220197.12195122 150425.12195122,
 220198.661315447 150423.171302099,220200.29453926 150421.298535644,220202.017688077 150419.508163512,220203.826610682 150417.804498867,
 220205.716949223 150416.191645986,220207.684149708 150414.673490372,220209.72347298 150413.253689397,220211.830006129 150411.935663483,
 220213.998674333 150410.722587873,220216.22425308 150409.61738497,220218.501380756 150408.622717305,220220.824571561 150407.740981121,
 220223.188228725 150406.974300596,220225.586657991 150406.324522731,220227 150406)

--3d example
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_CurveToLine(ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415 1,220227 150505 2,220227 150406 3)')));
Output
------
 LINESTRING(220268 150415 1,220269.95064912 150416.539364228 1.0181172856673,
 220271.823415575 150418.17258804 1.03623457133459,220273.613787707 150419.895736857 1.05435185700189,....AD INFINITUM ....
    220225.586657991 150406.324522731 1.32611114201132,220227 150406 3)

--use only 2 segments to approximate quarter circle
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CurveToLine(ST_GeomFromText('CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415,220227 150505,220227 150406)'),2));
st_astext
------------------------------
 LINESTRING(220268 150415,220287.740300149 150448.342699654,220278.12195122 150485.87804878,
 220244.779251566 150505.61834893,220207.243902439 150496,220187.50360229 150462.657300346,
 220197.12195122 150425.12195122,220227 150406)

-- Ensure approximated line is no further than 20 units away from
-- original curve, and make the result direction-neutral
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_CurveToLine(
 'CIRCULARSTRING(0 0,100 -100,200 0)'::geometry,
    20, -- Tolerance
    1, -- Above is max distance between curve and line
    1  -- Symmetric flag
));
st_astext
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 LINESTRING(0 0,50 -86.6025403784438,150 -86.6025403784439,200 -1.1331077795296e-13,200 0)


        

Voir aussi

ST_LineToCurve


Name

ST_Scroll — Change start point of a closed LineString.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Scroll(geometry linestring, geometry point);

Description

Changes the start/end point of a closed LineString to the given vertex point.

Availability: 3.2.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.

Exemples

Make e closed line start at its 3rd vertex

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Scroll('SRID=4326;LINESTRING(0 0 0 1, 10 0 2 0, 5 5 4 2,0 0 0 1)', 'POINT(5 5 4 2)'));

st_asewkt
----------
SRID=4326;LINESTRING(5 5 4 2,0 0 0 1,10 0 2 0,5 5 4 2)

Voir aussi

ST_Normalize


Name

ST_FlipCoordinates — Returns a version of a geometry with X and Y axis flipped.

Synopsis

geometry ST_FlipCoordinates(geometry geom);

Description

Returns a version of the given geometry with X and Y axis flipped. Useful for fixing geometries which contain coordinates expressed as latitude/longitude (Y,X).

Disponibilité: 2.0.0

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemple

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_FlipCoordinates(GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 2)')));
 st_asewkt
------------
POINT(2 1)
         

Voir aussi

ST_SwapOrdinates


Name

ST_Force2D — Force the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode".

Synopsis

geometry ST_Force2D(geometry geomA);

Description

Forces the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode" so that all output representations will only have the X and Y coordinates. This is useful for force OGC-compliant output (since OGC only specifies 2-D geometries).

Amélioration: la version 2.0.0 introduit le support des surfaces Polyédrique.

Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_2D.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force2D(ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2, 2 3 2, 4 5 2, 6 7 2, 5 6 2)')));
                st_asewkt
-------------------------------------
CIRCULARSTRING(1 1,2 3,4 5,6 7,5 6)

SELECT  ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force2D('POLYGON((0 0 2,0 5 2,5 0 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,3 1 2,1 3 2,1 1 2))'));

                                  st_asewkt
----------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0,0 5,5 0,0 0),(1 1,3 1,1 3,1 1))

                

Voir aussi

ST_Force3D


Name

ST_Force3D — Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Force3D(geometry geomA, float Zvalue = 0.0);

Description

Forces the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ. If a geometry has no Z component, then a Zvalue Z coordinate is tacked on.

Amélioration: la version 2.0.0 introduit le support des surfaces Polyédrique.

Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_3D.

Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying a non-zero Z value.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

--Nothing happens to an already 3D geometry
                SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force3D(ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2, 2 3 2, 4 5 2, 6 7 2, 5 6 2)')));
                                   st_asewkt
-----------------------------------------------
 CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2,2 3 2,4 5 2,6 7 2,5 6 2)


SELECT  ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force3D('POLYGON((0 0,0 5,5 0,0 0),(1 1,3 1,1 3,1 1))'));

                                                 st_asewkt
--------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0 0,0 5 0,5 0 0,0 0 0),(1 1 0,3 1 0,1 3 0,1 1 0))
                

Name

ST_Force3DZ — Force the geometries into XYZ mode.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Force3DZ(geometry geomA, float Zvalue = 0.0);

Description

Forces the geometries into XYZ mode. If a geometry has no Z component, then a Zvalue Z coordinate is tacked on.

Amélioration: la version 2.0.0 introduit le support des surfaces Polyédrique.

Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_3DZ.

Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying a non-zero Z value.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

--Nothing happens to an already 3D geometry
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force3DZ(ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2, 2 3 2, 4 5 2, 6 7 2, 5 6 2)')));
                                   st_asewkt
-----------------------------------------------
 CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2,2 3 2,4 5 2,6 7 2,5 6 2)


SELECT  ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force3DZ('POLYGON((0 0,0 5,5 0,0 0),(1 1,3 1,1 3,1 1))'));

                                                 st_asewkt
--------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0 0,0 5 0,5 0 0,0 0 0),(1 1 0,3 1 0,1 3 0,1 1 0))
                

Name

ST_Force3DM — Force the geometries into XYM mode.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Force3DM(geometry geomA, float Mvalue = 0.0);

Description

Forces the geometries into XYM mode. If a geometry has no M component, then a Mvalue M coordinate is tacked on. If it has a Z component, then Z is removed

Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_3DM.

Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying a non-zero M value.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

--Nothing happens to an already 3D geometry
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force3DM(ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2, 2 3 2, 4 5 2, 6 7 2, 5 6 2)')));
                                   st_asewkt
------------------------------------------------
 CIRCULARSTRINGM(1 1 0,2 3 0,4 5 0,6 7 0,5 6 0)


SELECT  ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force3DM('POLYGON((0 0 1,0 5 1,5 0 1,0 0 1),(1 1 1,3 1 1,1 3 1,1 1 1))'));

                                                  st_asewkt
---------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGONM((0 0 0,0 5 0,5 0 0,0 0 0),(1 1 0,3 1 0,1 3 0,1 1 0))

                

Name

ST_Force4D — Force the geometries into XYZM mode.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Force4D(geometry geomA, float Zvalue = 0.0, float Mvalue = 0.0);

Description

Forces the geometries into XYZM mode. Zvalue and Mvalue is tacked on for missing Z and M dimensions, respectively.

Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_4D.

Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying non-zero Z and M values.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

--Nothing happens to an already 3D geometry
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force4D(ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2, 2 3 2, 4 5 2, 6 7 2, 5 6 2)')));
                                                st_asewkt
---------------------------------------------------------
 CIRCULARSTRING(1 1 2 0,2 3 2 0,4 5 2 0,6 7 2 0,5 6 2 0)



SELECT  ST_AsEWKT(ST_Force4D('MULTILINESTRINGM((0 0 1,0 5 2,5 0 3,0 0 4),(1 1 1,3 1 1,1 3 1,1 1 1))'));

                                                                          st_asewkt
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 MULTILINESTRING((0 0 0 1,0 5 0 2,5 0 0 3,0 0 0 4),(1 1 0 1,3 1 0 1,1 3 0 1,1 1 0 1))

                

Name

ST_ForcePolygonCCW — Orients all exterior rings counter-clockwise and all interior rings clockwise.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ForcePolygonCCW ( geometry geom );

Description

Forces (Multi)Polygons to use a counter-clockwise orientation for their exterior ring, and a clockwise orientation for their interior rings. Non-polygonal geometries are returned unchanged.

Availability: 2.4.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.


Name

ST_ForceCollection — Convert the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ForceCollection(geometry geomA);

Description

Converts the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. This is useful for simplifying the WKB representation.

Amélioration: la version 2.0.0 introduit le support des surfaces Polyédrique.

Availability: 1.2.2, prior to 1.3.4 this function will crash with Curves. This is fixed in 1.3.4+

Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_Collection.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT  ST_AsEWKT(ST_ForceCollection('POLYGON((0 0 1,0 5 1,5 0 1,0 0 1),(1 1 1,3 1 1,1 3 1,1 1 1))'));

                                                                   st_asewkt
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POLYGON((0 0 1,0 5 1,5 0 1,0 0 1),(1 1 1,3 1 1,1 3 1,1 1 1)))


  SELECT ST_AsText(ST_ForceCollection('CIRCULARSTRING(220227 150406,2220227 150407,220227 150406)'));
                                                                   st_astext
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(CIRCULARSTRING(220227 150406,2220227 150407,220227 150406))
(1 row)

                
-- POLYHEDRAL example --
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_ForceCollection('POLYHEDRALSURFACE(((0 0 0,0 0 1,0 1 1,0 1 0,0 0 0)),
 ((0 0 0,0 1 0,1 1 0,1 0 0,0 0 0)),
 ((0 0 0,1 0 0,1 0 1,0 0 1,0 0 0)),
 ((1 1 0,1 1 1,1 0 1,1 0 0,1 1 0)),
 ((0 1 0,0 1 1,1 1 1,1 1 0,0 1 0)),
 ((0 0 1,1 0 1,1 1 1,0 1 1,0 0 1)))'))

                                                                   st_asewkt
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(
  POLYGON((0 0 0,0 0 1,0 1 1,0 1 0,0 0 0)),
  POLYGON((0 0 0,0 1 0,1 1 0,1 0 0,0 0 0)),
  POLYGON((0 0 0,1 0 0,1 0 1,0 0 1,0 0 0)),
  POLYGON((1 1 0,1 1 1,1 0 1,1 0 0,1 1 0)),
  POLYGON((0 1 0,0 1 1,1 1 1,1 1 0,0 1 0)),
  POLYGON((0 0 1,1 0 1,1 1 1,0 1 1,0 0 1))
)
                

Name

ST_ForcePolygonCW — Orients all exterior rings clockwise and all interior rings counter-clockwise.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ForcePolygonCW ( geometry geom );

Description

Forces (Multi)Polygons to use a clockwise orientation for their exterior ring, and a counter-clockwise orientation for their interior rings. Non-polygonal geometries are returned unchanged.

Availability: 2.4.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.


Name

ST_ForceSFS — Force the geometries to use SFS 1.1 geometry types only.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ForceSFS(geometry geomA);

geometry ST_ForceSFS(geometry geomA, text version);

Description

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.


Name

ST_ForceRHR — Force the orientation of the vertices in a polygon to follow the Right-Hand-Rule.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ForceRHR(geometry g);

Description

Forces the orientation of the vertices in a polygon to follow a Right-Hand-Rule, in which the area that is bounded by the polygon is to the right of the boundary. In particular, the exterior ring is orientated in a clockwise direction and the interior rings in a counter-clockwise direction. This function is a synonym for ST_ForcePolygonCW

[Note]

The above definition of the Right-Hand-Rule conflicts with definitions used in other contexts. To avoid confusion, it is recommended to use ST_ForcePolygonCW.

Amélioration: la version 2.0.0 introduit le support des surfaces Polyédrique.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(
  ST_ForceRHR(
        'POLYGON((0 0 2, 5 0 2, 0 5 2, 0 0 2),(1 1 2, 1 3 2, 3 1 2, 1 1 2))'
  )
);
                                                  st_asewkt
--------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0 2,0 5 2,5 0 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,3 1 2,1 3 2,1 1 2))
(1 row)

Name

ST_ForceCurve — Upcast a geometry into its curved type, if applicable.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ForceCurve(geometry g);

Description

Turns a geometry into its curved representation, if applicable: lines become compoundcurves, multilines become multicurves polygons become curvepolygons multipolygons become multisurfaces. If the geometry input is already a curved representation returns back same as input.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(
  ST_ForceCurve(
        'POLYGON((0 0 2, 5 0 2, 0 5 2, 0 0 2),(1 1 2, 1 3 2, 3 1 2, 1 1 2))'::geometry
  )
);
                              st_astext
----------------------------------------------------------------------
 CURVEPOLYGON Z ((0 0 2,5 0 2,0 5 2,0 0 2),(1 1 2,1 3 2,3 1 2,1 1 2))
(1 row)

Voir aussi

ST_LineToCurve


Name

ST_LineToCurve — Converts a linear geometry to a curved geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_LineToCurve(geometry geomANoncircular);

Description

Converts plain LINESTRING/POLYGON to CIRCULAR STRINGs and Curved Polygons. Note much fewer points are needed to describe the curved equivalent.

[Note]

If the input LINESTRING/POLYGON is not curved enough to clearly represent a curve, the function will return the same input geometry.

Availability: 1.3.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

-- 2D Example
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_LineToCurve(foo.geom)) As curvedastext,ST_AsText(foo.geom) As non_curvedastext
    FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer('POINT(1 3)'::geometry, 3) As geom) As foo;

curvedatext                                                            non_curvedastext
--------------------------------------------------------------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------
CURVEPOLYGON(CIRCULARSTRING(4 3,3.12132034355964 0.878679656440359, | POLYGON((4 3,3.94235584120969 2.41472903395162,3.77163859753386 1.85194970290473,
1 0,-1.12132034355965 5.12132034355963,4 3))                        |  3.49440883690764 1.33328930094119,3.12132034355964 0.878679656440359,
                                                                    |  2.66671069905881 0.505591163092366,2.14805029709527 0.228361402466141,
                                                                    |  1.58527096604839 0.0576441587903094,1 0,
                                                                    |  0.414729033951621 0.0576441587903077,-0.148050297095264 0.228361402466137,
                                                                    |  -0.666710699058802 0.505591163092361,-1.12132034355964 0.878679656440353,
                                                                    |  -1.49440883690763 1.33328930094119,-1.77163859753386 1.85194970290472
                                                                    |  --ETC-- ,3.94235584120969 3.58527096604839,4 3))

--3D example
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_LineToCurve(geom)) As curved, ST_AsText(geom) AS not_curved
FROM (SELECT ST_Translate(ST_Force3D(ST_Boundary(ST_Buffer(ST_Point(1,3), 2,2))),0,0,3) AS geom) AS foo;

                        curved                        |               not_curved
------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------
 CIRCULARSTRING Z (3 3 3,-1 2.99999999999999 3,3 3 3) | LINESTRING Z (3 3 3,2.4142135623731 1.58578643762691 3,1 1 3,
                                                      | -0.414213562373092 1.5857864376269 3,-1 2.99999999999999 3,
                                                      | -0.414213562373101 4.41421356237309 3,
                                                      | 0.999999999999991 5 3,2.41421356237309 4.4142135623731 3,3 3 3)
(1 row)

Voir aussi

ST_CurveToLine


Name

ST_Multi — Return the geometry as a MULTI* geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Multi(geometry geom);

Description

Returns the geometry as a MULTI* geometry collection. If the geometry is already a collection, it is returned unchanged.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Multi('POLYGON ((10 30, 30 30, 30 10, 10 10, 10 30))'));
                    st_astext
    -------------------------------------------------
    MULTIPOLYGON(((10 30,30 30,30 10,10 10,10 30)))

Voir aussi

ST_AsText


Name

ST_Normalize — Return the geometry in its canonical form.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Normalize(geometry geom);

Description

Returns the geometry in its normalized/canonical form. May reorder vertices in polygon rings, rings in a polygon, elements in a multi-geometry complex.

Mostly only useful for testing purposes (comparing expected and obtained results).

Availability: 2.3.0

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Normalize(ST_GeomFromText(
  'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(
    POINT(2 3),
    MULTILINESTRING((0 0, 1 1),(2 2, 3 3)),
    POLYGON(
      (0 10,0 0,10 0,10 10,0 10),
      (4 2,2 2,2 4,4 4,4 2),
      (6 8,8 8,8 6,6 6,6 8)
    )
  )'
)));
                                                                     st_astext
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POLYGON((0 0,0 10,10 10,10 0,0 0),(6 6,8 6,8 8,6 8,6 6),(2 2,4 2,4 4,2 4,2 2)),MULTILINESTRING((2 2,3 3),(0 0,1 1)),POINT(2 3))
(1 row)
                        

Voir aussi

ST_Equals,


Name

ST_QuantizeCoordinates — Sets least significant bits of coordinates to zero

Synopsis

geometry ST_QuantizeCoordinates ( geometry g , int prec_x , int prec_y , int prec_z , int prec_m );

Description

ST_QuantizeCoordinates determines the number of bits (N) required to represent a coordinate value with a specified number of digits after the decimal point, and then sets all but the N most significant bits to zero. The resulting coordinate value will still round to the original value, but will have improved compressiblity. This can result in a significant disk usage reduction provided that the geometry column is using a compressible storage type. The function allows specification of a different number of digits after the decimal point in each dimension; unspecified dimensions are assumed to have the precision of the x dimension. Negative digits are interpreted to refer digits to the left of the decimal point, (i.e., prec_x=-2 will preserve coordinate values to the nearest 100.

The coordinates produced by ST_QuantizeCoordinates are independent of the geometry that contains those coordinates and the relative position of those coordinates within the geometry. As a result, existing topological relationships between geometries are unaffected by use of this function. The function may produce invalid geometry when it is called with a number of digits lower than the intrinsic precision of the geometry.

Availability: 2.5.0

Technical Background

PostGIS stores all coordinate values as double-precision floating point integers, which can reliably represent 15 significant digits. However, PostGIS may be used to manage data that intrinsically has fewer than 15 significant digits. An example is TIGER data, which is provided as geographic coordinates with six digits of precision after the decimal point (thus requiring only nine significant digits of longitude and eight significant digits of latitude.)

When 15 significant digits are available, there are many possible representations of a number with 9 significant digits. A double precision floating point number uses 52 explicit bits to represent the significand (mantissa) of the coordinate. Only 30 bits are needed to represent a mantissa with 9 significant digits, leaving 22 insignificant bits; we can set their value to anything we like and still end up with a number that rounds to our input value. For example, the value 100.123456 can be represented by the floating point numbers closest to 100.123456000000, 100.123456000001, and 100.123456432199. All are equally valid, in that ST_AsText(geom, 6) will return the same result with any of these inputs. As we can set these bits to any value, ST_QuantizeCoordinates sets the 22 insignificant bits to zero. For a long coordinate sequence this creates a pattern of blocks of consecutive zeros that is compressed by PostgreSQL more effeciently.

[Note]

Only the on-disk size of the geometry is potentially affected by ST_QuantizeCoordinates. ST_MemSize, which reports the in-memory usage of the geometry, will return the the same value regardless of the disk space used by a geometry.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_QuantizeCoordinates('POINT (100.123456 0)'::geometry, 4));
st_astext
-------------------------
POINT(100.123455047607 0)
                        
WITH test AS (SELECT 'POINT (123.456789123456 123.456789123456)'::geometry AS geom)
SELECT
  digits,
  encode(ST_QuantizeCoordinates(geom, digits), 'hex'),
  ST_AsText(ST_QuantizeCoordinates(geom, digits))
FROM test, generate_series(15, -15, -1) AS digits;

digits  |                   encode                   |                st_astext
--------+--------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------
15      | 01010000005f9a72083cdd5e405f9a72083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789123456 123.456789123456)
14      | 01010000005f9a72083cdd5e405f9a72083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789123456 123.456789123456)
13      | 01010000005f9a72083cdd5e405f9a72083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789123456 123.456789123456)
12      | 01010000005c9a72083cdd5e405c9a72083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789123456 123.456789123456)
11      | 0101000000409a72083cdd5e40409a72083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789123456 123.456789123456)
10      | 0101000000009a72083cdd5e40009a72083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789123455 123.456789123455)
9       | 0101000000009072083cdd5e40009072083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789123418 123.456789123418)
8       | 0101000000008072083cdd5e40008072083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.45678912336 123.45678912336)
7       | 0101000000000070083cdd5e40000070083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789121032 123.456789121032)
6       | 0101000000000040083cdd5e40000040083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789076328 123.456789076328)
5       | 0101000000000000083cdd5e40000000083cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456789016724 123.456789016724)
4       | 0101000000000000003cdd5e40000000003cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456787109375 123.456787109375)
3       | 0101000000000000003cdd5e40000000003cdd5e40 | POINT(123.456787109375 123.456787109375)
2       | 01010000000000000038dd5e400000000038dd5e40 | POINT(123.45654296875 123.45654296875)
1       | 01010000000000000000dd5e400000000000dd5e40 | POINT(123.453125 123.453125)
0       | 01010000000000000000dc5e400000000000dc5e40 | POINT(123.4375 123.4375)
-1      | 01010000000000000000c05e400000000000c05e40 | POINT(123 123)
-2      | 01010000000000000000005e400000000000005e40 | POINT(120 120)
-3      | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-4      | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-5      | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-6      | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-7      | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-8      | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-9      | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-10     | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-11     | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-12     | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-13     | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-14     | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)
-15     | 010100000000000000000058400000000000005840 | POINT(96 96)

Voir aussi

ST_SnapToGrid


Name

ST_RemovePoint — Remove a point from a linestring.

Synopsis

geometry ST_RemovePoint(geometry linestring, integer offset);

Description

Removes a point from a LineString, given its index (0-based). Useful for turning a closed line (ring) into an open linestring.

Enhanced: 3.2.0

Disponibilité: 1.1.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

Guarantees no lines are closed by removing the end point of closed lines (rings). Assumes geom is of type LINESTRING

UPDATE sometable
        SET geom = ST_RemovePoint(geom, ST_NPoints(geom) - 1)
        FROM sometable
        WHERE ST_IsClosed(geom);

Name

ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints — Returns a version of a geometry with duplicate points removed.

Synopsis

geometry ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints(geometry geom, float8 tolerance);

Description

Returns a version of the given geometry with duplicate consecutive points removed. The function processes only (Multi)LineStrings, (Multi)Polygons and MultiPoints but it can be called with any kind of geometry. Elements of GeometryCollections are processed individually. The endpoints of LineStrings are preserved.

If the tolerance parameter is provided, vertices within the tolerance distance of one another are considered to be duplicates.

Enhanced: 3.2.0

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints( 'MULTIPOINT ((1 1), (2 2), (3 3), (2 2))'));
-------------------------
 MULTIPOINT(1 1,2 2,3 3)
SELECT ST_AsText( ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints( 'LINESTRING (0 0, 0 0, 1 1, 0 0, 1 1, 2 2)'));
---------------------------------
 LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,0 0,1 1,2 2)

Example: Collection elements are processed individually.

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints( 'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (LINESTRING (1 1, 2 2, 2 2, 3 3), POINT (4 4), POINT (4 4), POINT (5 5))'));
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(LINESTRING(1 1,2 2,3 3),POINT(4 4),POINT(4 4),POINT(5 5))

Example: Repeated point removal with a distance tolerance.

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints( 'LINESTRING (0 0, 0 0, 1 1, 5 5, 1 1, 2 2)', 2));
-------------------------
 LINESTRING(0 0,5 5,2 2)

Voir aussi

ST_Simplify


Name

ST_Reverse — Return the geometry with vertex order reversed.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Reverse(geometry g1);

Description

Can be used on any geometry and reverses the order of the vertexes.

Enhanced: 2.4.0 support for curves was introduced.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(geom) as line, ST_AsText(ST_Reverse(geom)) As reverseline
FROM
(SELECT ST_MakeLine(ST_Point(1,2),
                ST_Point(1,10)) As geom) as foo;
--result
                line         |     reverseline
---------------------+----------------------
LINESTRING(1 2,1 10) | LINESTRING(1 10,1 2)

Name

ST_Segmentize — Return a modified geometry/geography having no segment longer than the given distance.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Segmentize(geometry geom, float max_segment_length);

geography ST_Segmentize(geography geog, float max_segment_length);

Description

Returns a modified geometry having no segment longer than the given max_segment_length. Distance computation is performed in 2d only. For geometry, length units are in units of spatial reference. For geography, units are in meters.

Availability: 1.2.2

Enhanced: 3.0.0 Segmentize geometry now uses equal length segments

Enhanced: 2.3.0 Segmentize geography now uses equal length segments

Enhanced: 2.1.0 support for geography was introduced.

Changed: 2.1.0 As a result of the introduction of geography support: The construct SELECT ST_Segmentize('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)',0.5); will result in ambiguous function error. You need to have properly typed object e.g. a geometry/geography column, use ST_GeomFromText, ST_GeogFromText or SELECT ST_Segmentize('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)'::geometry,0.5);

[Note]

This will only increase segments. It will not lengthen segments shorter than max length

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Segmentize(
ST_GeomFromText('MULTILINESTRING((-29 -27,-30 -29.7,-36 -31,-45 -33),(-45 -33,-46 -32))')
                ,5)
);
st_astext
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MULTILINESTRING((-29 -27,-30 -29.7,-34.886615700134 -30.758766735029,-36 -31,
-40.8809353009198 -32.0846522890933,-45 -33),
(-45 -33,-46 -32))
(1 row)

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Segmentize(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((-29 28, -30 40, -29 28))'),10));
st_astext
-----------------------
POLYGON((-29 28,-29.8304547985374 37.9654575824488,-30 40,-29.1695452014626 30.0345424175512,-29 28))
(1 row)

                        

Name

ST_SetPoint — Replace point of a linestring with a given point.

Synopsis

geometry ST_SetPoint(geometry linestring, integer zerobasedposition, geometry point);

Description

Replace point N of linestring with given point. Index is 0-based.Negative index are counted backwards, so that -1 is last point. This is especially useful in triggers when trying to maintain relationship of joints when one vertex moves.

Disponibilité: 1.1.0

Updated 2.3.0 : negative indexing

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

--Change first point in line string from -1 3 to -1 1
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_SetPoint('LINESTRING(-1 2,-1 3)', 0, 'POINT(-1 1)'));
           st_astext
-----------------------
 LINESTRING(-1 1,-1 3)

---Change last point in a line string (lets play with 3d linestring this time)
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_SetPoint(foo.geom, ST_NumPoints(foo.geom) - 1, ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(-1 1 3)')))
FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(-1 2 3,-1 3 4, 5 6 7)') As geom) As foo;
           st_asewkt
-----------------------
LINESTRING(-1 2 3,-1 3 4,-1 1 3)

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_SetPoint(g, -3, p))
FROM ST_GEomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 2 2, 3 3, 4 4)') AS g
        , ST_PointN(g,1) as p;
           st_astext
-----------------------
LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,0 0,3 3,4 4)

                        

Name

ST_ShiftLongitude — Shifts the longitude coordinates of a geometry between -180..180 and 0..360.

Synopsis

geometry ST_ShiftLongitude(geometry geom);

Description

Reads every point/vertex in a geometry, and shifts its longitude coordinate from -180..0 to 180..360 and vice versa if between these ranges. This function is symmetrical so the result is a 0..360 representation of a -180..180 data and a -180..180 representation of a 0..360 data.

[Note]

This is only useful for data with coordinates in longitude/latitude; e.g. SRID 4326 (WGS 84 geographic)

[Warning]

Pre-1.3.4 bug prevented this from working for MULTIPOINT. 1.3.4+ works with MULTIPOINT as well.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN et surfaces polyhédriques

NOTE: this function was renamed from "ST_Shift_Longitude" in 2.2.0

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

--single point forward transformation
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_ShiftLongitude('SRID=4326;POINT(270 0)'::geometry))

st_astext
----------
POINT(-90 0)


--single point reverse transformation
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_ShiftLongitude('SRID=4326;POINT(-90 0)'::geometry))

st_astext
----------
POINT(270 0)


--for linestrings the functions affects only to the sufficient coordinates
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_ShiftLongitude('SRID=4326;LINESTRING(174 12, 182 13)'::geometry))

st_astext
----------
LINESTRING(174 12,-178 13)
        

Voir aussi

ST_WrapX


Name

ST_WrapX — Wrap a geometry around an X value.

Synopsis

geometry ST_WrapX(geometry geom, float8 wrap, float8 move);

Description

This function splits the input geometries and then moves every resulting component falling on the right (for negative 'move') or on the left (for positive 'move') of given 'wrap' line in the direction specified by the 'move' parameter, finally re-unioning the pieces together.

[Note]

This is useful to "recenter" long-lat input to have features of interest not spawned from one side to the other.

Availability: 2.3.0 requires GEOS

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

-- Move all components of the given geometries whose bounding box
-- falls completely on the left of x=0 to +360
select ST_WrapX(geom, 0, 360);

-- Move all components of the given geometries whose bounding box
-- falls completely on the left of x=-30 to +360
select ST_WrapX(geom, -30, 360);
        

Name

ST_SnapToGrid — Snap all points of the input geometry to a regular grid.

Synopsis

geometry ST_SnapToGrid(geometry geomA, float originX, float originY, float sizeX, float sizeY);

geometry ST_SnapToGrid(geometry geomA, float sizeX, float sizeY);

geometry ST_SnapToGrid(geometry geomA, float size);

geometry ST_SnapToGrid(geometry geomA, geometry pointOrigin, float sizeX, float sizeY, float sizeZ, float sizeM);

Description

Variant 1,2,3: Snap all points of the input geometry to the grid defined by its origin and cell size. Remove consecutive points falling on the same cell, eventually returning NULL if output points are not enough to define a geometry of the given type. Collapsed geometries in a collection are stripped from it. Useful for reducing precision.

Variant 4: Introduced 1.1.0 - Snap all points of the input geometry to the grid defined by its origin (the second argument, must be a point) and cell sizes. Specify 0 as size for any dimension you don't want to snap to a grid.

[Note]

The returned geometry might lose its simplicity (see ST_IsSimple).

[Note]

Before release 1.1.0 this function always returned a 2d geometry. Starting at 1.1.0 the returned geometry will have same dimensionality as the input one with higher dimension values untouched. Use the version taking a second geometry argument to define all grid dimensions.

Disponibilité: 1.0.0RC1

Availability: 1.1.0 - Z and M support

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

--Snap your geometries to a precision grid of 10^-3
UPDATE mytable
   SET geom = ST_SnapToGrid(geom, 0.001);

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_SnapToGrid(
                        ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1.1115678 2.123, 4.111111 3.2374897, 4.11112 3.23748667)'),
                        0.001)
                );
                          st_astext
-------------------------------------
 LINESTRING(1.112 2.123,4.111 3.237)
 --Snap a 4d geometry
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_SnapToGrid(
        ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(-1.1115678 2.123 2.3456 1.11111,
                4.111111 3.2374897 3.1234 1.1111, -1.11111112 2.123 2.3456 1.1111112)'),
 ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1.12 2.22 3.2 4.4444)'),
 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.01) );
                                                                  st_asewkt
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 LINESTRING(-1.08 2.12 2.3 1.1144,4.12 3.22 3.1 1.1144,-1.08 2.12 2.3 1.1144)


--With a 4d geometry - the ST_SnapToGrid(geom,size) only touches x and y coords but keeps m and z the same
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_SnapToGrid(ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(-1.1115678 2.123 3 2.3456,
                4.111111 3.2374897 3.1234 1.1111)'),
           0.01)      );
                                                st_asewkt
---------------------------------------------------------
 LINESTRING(-1.11 2.12 3 2.3456,4.11 3.24 3.1234 1.1111)

                

Name

ST_Snap — Snap segments and vertices of input geometry to vertices of a reference geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Snap(geometry input, geometry reference, float tolerance);

Description

Snaps the vertices and segments of a geometry to another Geometry's vertices. A snap distance tolerance is used to control where snapping is performed. The result geometry is the input geometry with the vertices snapped. If no snapping occurs then the input geometry is returned unchanged.

Snapping one geometry to another can improve robustness for overlay operations by eliminating nearly-coincident edges (which cause problems during noding and intersection calculation).

Too much snapping can result in invalid topology being created, so the number and location of snapped vertices is decided using heuristics to determine when it is safe to snap. This can result in some potential snaps being omitted, however.

[Note]

The returned geometry might lose its simplicity (see ST_IsSimple) and validity (see ST_IsValid).

Performed by the GEOS module.

Disponibilité: 2.0.0

Exemples

A multipolygon shown with a linestring (before any snapping)

A multipolygon snapped to linestring to tolerance: 1.01 of distance. The new multipolygon is shown with reference linestring

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Snap(poly,line, ST_Distance(poly,line)*1.01)) AS polysnapped
FROM (SELECT
   ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOLYGON(
     ((26 125, 26 200, 126 200, 126 125, 26 125 ),
      ( 51 150, 101 150, 76 175, 51 150 )),
      (( 151 100, 151 200, 176 175, 151 100 )))') As poly,
       ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (5 107, 54 84, 101 100)') As line
        ) As foo;

                             polysnapped
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 MULTIPOLYGON(((26 125,26 200,126 200,126 125,101 100,26 125),
 (51 150,101 150,76 175,51 150)),((151 100,151 200,176 175,151 100)))
                                

A multipolygon snapped to linestring to tolerance: 1.25 of distance. The new multipolygon is shown with reference linestring

SELECT ST_AsText(
    ST_Snap(poly,line, ST_Distance(poly,line)*1.25)
  ) AS polysnapped
FROM (SELECT
  ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOLYGON(
    (( 26 125, 26 200, 126 200, 126 125, 26 125 ),
      ( 51 150, 101 150, 76 175, 51 150 )),
      (( 151 100, 151 200, 176 175, 151 100 )))') As poly,
       ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (5 107, 54 84, 101 100)') As line
        ) As foo;

                             polysnapped
---------------------------------------------------------------------
MULTIPOLYGON(((5 107,26 200,126 200,126 125,101 100,54 84,5 107),
(51 150,101 150,76 175,51 150)),((151 100,151 200,176 175,151 100)))
                                

The linestring snapped to the original multipolygon at tolerance 1.01 of distance. The new linestring is shown with reference multipolygon

SELECT ST_AsText(
   ST_Snap(line, poly, ST_Distance(poly,line)*1.01)
  ) AS linesnapped
FROM (SELECT
  ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOLYGON(
     ((26 125, 26 200, 126 200, 126 125, 26 125),
      (51 150, 101 150, 76 175, 51 150 )),
      ((151 100, 151 200, 176 175, 151 100)))') As poly,
       ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (5 107, 54 84, 101 100)') As line
        ) As foo;

              linesnapped
----------------------------------------
 LINESTRING(5 107,26 125,54 84,101 100)
                                

The linestring snapped to the original multipolygon at tolerance 1.25 of distance. The new linestring is shown with reference multipolygon

SELECT ST_AsText(
 ST_Snap(line, poly, ST_Distance(poly,line)*1.25)
  ) AS linesnapped
FROM (SELECT
  ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOLYGON(
     (( 26 125, 26 200, 126 200, 126 125, 26 125 ),
      (51 150, 101 150, 76 175, 51 150 )),
      ((151 100, 151 200, 176 175, 151 100 )))') As poly,
       ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (5 107, 54 84, 101 100)') As line
        ) As foo;
              linesnapped
---------------------------------------
LINESTRING(26 125,54 84,101 100)
                                

Voir aussi

ST_SnapToGrid


Name

ST_SwapOrdinates — Returns a version of the given geometry with given ordinate values swapped.

Synopsis

geometry ST_SwapOrdinates(geometry geom, cstring ords);

Description

Returns a version of the given geometry with given ordinates swapped.

The ords parameter is a 2-characters string naming the ordinates to swap. Valid names are: x,y,z and m.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports M coordinates.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemple

-- Scale M value by 2
SELECT ST_AsText(
  ST_SwapOrdinates(
    ST_Scale(
      ST_SwapOrdinates(g,'xm'),
      2, 1
    ),
  'xm')
) FROM ( SELECT 'POINT ZM (0 0 0 2)'::geometry g ) foo;
     st_astext
--------------------
 POINT ZM (0 0 0 4)
                 

Voir aussi

ST_FlipCoordinates

8.6. Geometry Validation

Abstract

These functions test whether geometries are valid according to the OGC SFS standard. They also provide information about the nature and location of invalidity. There is also a function to create a valid geometry out of an invalid one.

ST_IsValid — Tests if a geometry is well-formed in 2D.
ST_IsValidDetail — Returns a valid_detail row stating if a geometry is valid or if not a reason and a location.
ST_IsValidReason — Returns text stating if a geometry is valid, or a reason for invalidity.
ST_MakeValid — Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.

Name

ST_IsValid — Tests if a geometry is well-formed in 2D.

Synopsis

boolean ST_IsValid(geometry g);

boolean ST_IsValid(geometry g, integer flags);

Description

Tests if an ST_Geometry value is well-formed and valid in 2D according to the OGC rules. For geometries with 3 and 4 dimensions, the validity is still only tested in 2 dimensions. For geometries that are invalid, a PostgreSQL NOTICE is emitted providing details of why it is not valid.

For the version with the flags parameter, supported values are documented in ST_IsValidDetail This version does not print a NOTICE explaining invalidity.

For more information on the definition of geometry validity, refer to Section 4.4, “Geometry Validation”

[Note]

SQL-MM defines the result of ST_IsValid(NULL) to be 0, while PostGIS returns NULL.

Performed by the GEOS module.

The version accepting flags is available starting with 2.0.0.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.9

[Note]

Neither OGC-SFS nor SQL-MM specifications include a flag argument for ST_IsValid. The flag is a PostGIS extension.

Examples

SELECT ST_IsValid(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)')) As good_line,
        ST_IsValid(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0, 1 1, 1 2, 1 1, 0 0))')) As bad_poly
--results
NOTICE:  Self-intersection at or near point 0 0
 good_line | bad_poly
-----------+----------
 t         | f

Name

ST_IsValidDetail — Returns a valid_detail row stating if a geometry is valid or if not a reason and a location.

Synopsis

valid_detail ST_IsValidDetail(geometry geom, integer flags);

Description

Returns a valid_detail row, containing a boolean (valid) stating if a geometry is valid, a varchar (reason) stating a reason why it is invalid and a geometry (location) pointing out where it is invalid.

Useful to improve on the combination of ST_IsValid and ST_IsValidReason to generate a detailed report of invalid geometries.

The optional flags parameter is a bitfield. It can have the following values:

  • 0: Use usual OGC SFS validity semantics.

  • 1: Consider certain kinds of self-touching rings (inverted shells and exverted holes) as valid. This is also known as "the ESRI flag", since this is the validity model used by those tools. Note that this is invalid under the OGC model.

Performed by the GEOS module.

Availability: 2.0.0

Examples

--First 3 Rejects from a successful quintuplet experiment
SELECT gid, reason(ST_IsValidDetail(geom)), ST_AsText(location(ST_IsValidDetail(geom))) as location
FROM
(SELECT ST_MakePolygon(ST_ExteriorRing(e.buff), array_agg(f.line)) As geom, gid
FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_Point(x1*10,y1), z1) As buff, x1*10 + y1*100 + z1*1000 As gid
        FROM generate_series(-4,6) x1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(2,5) y1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(1,8) z1
        WHERE x1 > y1*0.5 AND z1 < x1*y1) As e
        INNER JOIN (SELECT ST_Translate(ST_ExteriorRing(ST_Buffer(ST_Point(x1*10,y1), z1)),y1*1, z1*2) As line
        FROM generate_series(-3,6) x1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(2,5) y1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(1,10) z1
        WHERE x1 > y1*0.75 AND z1 < x1*y1) As f
ON (ST_Area(e.buff) > 78 AND ST_Contains(e.buff, f.line))
GROUP BY gid, e.buff) As quintuplet_experiment
WHERE ST_IsValid(geom) = false
ORDER BY gid
LIMIT 3;

 gid  |      reason       |  location
------+-------------------+-------------
 5330 | Self-intersection | POINT(32 5)
 5340 | Self-intersection | POINT(42 5)
 5350 | Self-intersection | POINT(52 5)

 --simple example
SELECT * FROM ST_IsValidDetail('LINESTRING(220227 150406,2220227 150407,222020 150410)');

 valid | reason | location
-------+--------+----------
 t     |        |

                

Name

ST_IsValidReason — Returns text stating if a geometry is valid, or a reason for invalidity.

Synopsis

text ST_IsValidReason(geometry geomA);

text ST_IsValidReason(geometry geomA, integer flags);

Description

Returns text stating if a geometry is valid, or if invalid a reason why.

Useful in combination with ST_IsValid to generate a detailed report of invalid geometries and reasons.

Allowed flags are documented in ST_IsValidDetail.

Performed by the GEOS module.

Availability: 1.4

Availability: 2.0 version taking flags.

Examples

-- invalid bow-tie polygon
SELECT ST_IsValidReason(
    'POLYGON ((100 200, 100 100, 200 200,
     200 100, 100 200))'::geometry) as validity_info;
validity_info
--------------------------
Self-intersection[150 150]
        
--First 3 Rejects from a successful quintuplet experiment
SELECT gid, ST_IsValidReason(geom) as validity_info
FROM
(SELECT ST_MakePolygon(ST_ExteriorRing(e.buff), array_agg(f.line)) As geom, gid
FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_Point(x1*10,y1), z1) As buff, x1*10 + y1*100 + z1*1000 As gid
        FROM generate_series(-4,6) x1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(2,5) y1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(1,8) z1
        WHERE x1 > y1*0.5 AND z1 < x1*y1) As e
        INNER JOIN (SELECT ST_Translate(ST_ExteriorRing(ST_Buffer(ST_Point(x1*10,y1), z1)),y1*1, z1*2) As line
        FROM generate_series(-3,6) x1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(2,5) y1
        CROSS JOIN generate_series(1,10) z1
        WHERE x1 > y1*0.75 AND z1 < x1*y1) As f
ON (ST_Area(e.buff) > 78 AND ST_Contains(e.buff, f.line))
GROUP BY gid, e.buff) As quintuplet_experiment
WHERE ST_IsValid(geom) = false
ORDER BY gid
LIMIT 3;

 gid  |      validity_info
------+--------------------------
 5330 | Self-intersection [32 5]
 5340 | Self-intersection [42 5]
 5350 | Self-intersection [52 5]

 --simple example
SELECT ST_IsValidReason('LINESTRING(220227 150406,2220227 150407,222020 150410)');

 st_isvalidreason
------------------
 Valid Geometry

                

Name

ST_MakeValid — Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MakeValid(geometry input);

geometry ST_MakeValid(geometry input, text params);

Description

The function attempts to create a valid representation of a given invalid geometry without losing any of the input vertices. Valid geometries are returned unchanged.

Supported inputs are: POINTS, MULTIPOINTS, LINESTRINGS, MULTILINESTRINGS, POLYGONS, MULTIPOLYGONS and GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONS containing any mix of them.

In case of full or partial dimensional collapses, the output geometry may be a collection of lower-to-equal dimension geometries, or a geometry of lower dimension.

Single polygons may become multi-geometries in case of self-intersections.

The params argument can be used to supply an options string to select the method to use for building valid geometry. The options string is in the format "method=linework|structure keepcollapsed=true|false".

The "method" key has two values.

  • "linework" is the original algorithm, and builds valid geometries by first extracting all lines, noding that linework together, then building a value output from the linework.

  • "structure" is an algorithm that distinguishes between interior and exterior rings, building new geometry by unioning exterior rings, and then differencing all interior rings.

The "keepcollapsed" key is only valid for the "structure" algorithm, and takes a value of "true" or "false". When set to "false", geometry components that collapse to a lower dimensionality, for example a one-point linestring would be dropped.

Performed by the GEOS module.

Availability: 2.0.0

Enhanced: 2.0.1, speed improvements

Enhanced: 2.1.0, added support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION and MULTIPOINT.

Enhanced: 3.1.0, added removal of Coordinates with NaN values.

Enhanced: 3.2.0, added algorithm options, 'linework' and 'structure'.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Examples

before_geom: MULTIPOLYGON of 2 overlapping polygons

after_geom: MULTIPOLYGON of 4 non-overlapping polygons

after_geom_structure: MULTIPOLYGON of 1 non-overlapping polygon

SELECT f.geom AS before_geom, ST_MakeValid(f.geom) AS after_geom, ST_MakeValid(f.geom, 'method=structure') AS after_geom_structure
FROM (SELECT 'MULTIPOLYGON(((186 194,187 194,188 195,189 195,190 195,
191 195,192 195,193 194,194 194,194 193,195 192,195 191,
195 190,195 189,195 188,194 187,194 186,14 6,13 6,12 5,11 5,
10 5,9 5,8 5,7 6,6 6,6 7,5 8,5 9,5 10,5 11,5 12,6 13,6 14,186 194)),
((150 90,149 80,146 71,142 62,135 55,128 48,119 44,110 41,100 40,
90 41,81 44,72 48,65 55,58 62,54 71,51 80,50 90,51 100,
54 109,58 118,65 125,72 132,81 136,90 139,100 140,110 139,
119 136,128 132,135 125,142 118,146 109,149 100,150 90)))'::geometry AS geom) AS f;

before_geom: MULTIPOLYGON of 6 overlapping polygons

after_geom: MULTIPOLYGON of 14 Non-overlapping polygons

after_geom_structure: MULTIPOLYGON of 1 Non-overlapping polygon

SELECT c.geom AS before_geom,
                    ST_MakeValid(c.geom) AS after_geom,
                    ST_MakeValid(c.geom, 'method=structure') AS after_geom_structure
        FROM (SELECT 'MULTIPOLYGON(((91 50,79 22,51 10,23 22,11 50,23 78,51 90,79 78,91 50)),
                  ((91 100,79 72,51 60,23 72,11 100,23 128,51 140,79 128,91 100)),
                  ((91 150,79 122,51 110,23 122,11 150,23 178,51 190,79 178,91 150)),
                  ((141 50,129 22,101 10,73 22,61 50,73 78,101 90,129 78,141 50)),
                  ((141 100,129 72,101 60,73 72,61 100,73 128,101 140,129 128,141 100)),
                  ((141 150,129 122,101 110,73 122,61 150,73 178,101 190,129 178,141 150)))'::geometry AS geom) AS c;

Examples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_MakeValid(
    'LINESTRING(0 0, 0 0)',
    'method=structure keepcollapsed=true'
    ));

 st_astext
------------
 POINT(0 0)


SELECT ST_AsText(ST_MakeValid(
    'LINESTRING(0 0, 0 0)',
    'method=structure keepcollapsed=false'
    ));

    st_astext
------------------
 LINESTRING EMPTY

8.7. Spatial Reference System Functions

Abstract

These functions work with the Spatial Reference System of geometries as defined in the spatial_ref_sys table.

ST_SetSRID — Set the SRID on a geometry.
ST_SRID — Returns the spatial reference identifier for a geometry.
ST_Transform — Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system.

Name

ST_SetSRID — Set the SRID on a geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_SetSRID(geometry geom, integer srid);

Description

Sets the SRID on a geometry to a particular integer value. Useful in constructing bounding boxes for queries.

[Note]

This function does not transform the geometry coordinates in any way - it simply sets the meta data defining the spatial reference system the geometry is assumed to be in. Use ST_Transform if you want to transform the geometry into a new projection.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Examples

-- Mark a point as WGS 84 long lat --

SELECT ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-123.365556, 48.428611),4326) As wgs84long_lat;
-- the ewkt representation (wrap with ST_AsEWKT) -
SRID=4326;POINT(-123.365556 48.428611)
                        

-- Mark a point as WGS 84 long lat and then transform to web mercator (Spherical Mercator) --

SELECT ST_Transform(ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-123.365556, 48.428611),4326),3785) As spere_merc;
-- the ewkt representation (wrap with ST_AsEWKT) -
SRID=3785;POINT(-13732990.8753491 6178458.96425423)
                        

Name

ST_SRID — Returns the spatial reference identifier for a geometry.

Synopsis

integer ST_SRID(geometry g1);

Description

Returns the spatial reference identifier for the ST_Geometry as defined in spatial_ref_sys table. Section 4.5, “Spatial Reference Systems”

[Note]

spatial_ref_sys table is a table that catalogs all spatial reference systems known to PostGIS and is used for transformations from one spatial reference system to another. So verifying you have the right spatial reference system identifier is important if you plan to ever transform your geometries.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.5

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Examples

SELECT ST_SRID(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(-71.1043 42.315)',4326));
                --result
                4326
                

Name

ST_Transform — Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system.

Synopsis

geometry ST_Transform(geometry g1, integer srid);

geometry ST_Transform(geometry geom, text to_proj);

geometry ST_Transform(geometry geom, text from_proj, text to_proj);

geometry ST_Transform(geometry geom, text from_proj, integer to_srid);

Description

Returns a new geometry with its coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system. The destination spatial reference to_srid may be identified by a valid SRID integer parameter (i.e. it must exist in the spatial_ref_sys table). Alternatively, a spatial reference defined as a PROJ.4 string can be used for to_proj and/or from_proj, however these methods are not optimized. If the destination spatial reference system is expressed with a PROJ.4 string instead of an SRID, the SRID of the output geometry will be set to zero. With the exception of functions with from_proj, input geometries must have a defined SRID.

ST_Transform is often confused with ST_SetSRID. ST_Transform actually changes the coordinates of a geometry from one spatial reference system to another, while ST_SetSRID() simply changes the SRID identifier of the geometry.

[Note]

Requires PostGIS be compiled with PROJ support. Use PostGIS_Full_Version to confirm you have PROJ support compiled in.

[Note]

If using more than one transformation, it is useful to have a functional index on the commonly used transformations to take advantage of index usage.

[Note]

Prior to 1.3.4, this function crashes if used with geometries that contain CURVES. This is fixed in 1.3.4+

Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced.

Enhanced: 2.3.0 support for direct PROJ.4 text was introduced.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.6

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Examples

Change Massachusetts state plane US feet geometry to WGS 84 long lat

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((743238 2967416,743238 2967450,
        743265 2967450,743265.625 2967416,743238 2967416))',2249),4326)) As wgs_geom;

 wgs_geom
---------------------------
 POLYGON((-71.1776848522251 42.3902896512902,-71.1776843766326 42.3903829478009,
-71.1775844305465 42.3903826677917,-71.1775825927231 42.3902893647987,-71.177684
8522251 42.3902896512902));
(1 row)

--3D Circular String example
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=2249;CIRCULARSTRING(743238 2967416 1,743238 2967450 2,743265 2967450 3,743265.625 2967416 3,743238 2967416 4)'),4326));

                                 st_asewkt
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 SRID=4326;CIRCULARSTRING(-71.1776848522251 42.3902896512902 1,-71.1776843766326 42.3903829478009 2,
 -71.1775844305465 42.3903826677917 3,
 -71.1775825927231 42.3902893647987 3,-71.1776848522251 42.3902896512902 4)

                

Example of creating a partial functional index. For tables where you are not sure all the geometries will be filled in, its best to use a partial index that leaves out null geometries which will both conserve space and make your index smaller and more efficient.

CREATE INDEX idx_geom_26986_parcels
  ON parcels
  USING gist
  (ST_Transform(geom, 26986))
  WHERE geom IS NOT NULL;
                

Examples of using PROJ.4 text to transform with custom spatial references.

-- Find intersection of two polygons near the North pole, using a custom Gnomic projection
-- See http://boundlessgeo.com/2012/02/flattening-the-peel/
 WITH data AS (
   SELECT
     ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((170 50,170 72,-130 72,-130 50,170 50))', 4326) AS p1,
     ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((-170 68,-170 90,-141 90,-141 68,-170 68))', 4326) AS p2,
     '+proj=gnom +ellps=WGS84 +lat_0=70 +lon_0=-160 +no_defs'::text AS gnom
 )
 SELECT ST_AsText(
   ST_Transform(
     ST_Intersection(ST_Transform(p1, gnom), ST_Transform(p2, gnom)),
   gnom, 4326))
 FROM data;
                                          st_astext
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  POLYGON((-170 74.053793645338,-141 73.4268621378904,-141 68,-170 68,-170 74.053793645338))
                

Configuring transformation behavior

Sometimes coordinate transformation involving a grid-shift can fail, for example if PROJ.4 has not been built with grid-shift files or the coordinate does not lie within the range for which the grid shift is defined. By default, PostGIS will throw an error if a grid shift file is not present, but this behavior can be configured on a per-SRID basis either by testing different to_proj values of PROJ.4 text, or altering the proj4text value within the spatial_ref_sys table.

For example, the proj4text parameter +datum=NAD87 is a shorthand form for the following +nadgrids parameter:

+nadgrids=@conus,@alaska,@ntv2_0.gsb,@ntv1_can.dat

The @ prefix means no error is reported if the files are not present, but if the end of the list is reached with no file having been appropriate (ie. found and overlapping) then an error is issued.

If, conversely, you wanted to ensure that at least the standard files were present, but that if all files were scanned without a hit a null transformation is applied you could use:

+nadgrids=@conus,@alaska,@ntv2_0.gsb,@ntv1_can.dat,null

The null grid shift file is a valid grid shift file covering the whole world and applying no shift. So for a complete example, if you wanted to alter PostGIS so that transformations to SRID 4267 that didn't lie within the correct range did not throw an ERROR, you would use the following:

UPDATE spatial_ref_sys SET proj4text = '+proj=longlat +ellps=clrk66 +nadgrids=@conus,@alaska,@ntv2_0.gsb,@ntv1_can.dat,null +no_defs' WHERE srid = 4267;

8.8. Geometry Input

Abstract

These functions create geometry objects from various textual or binary formats.

8.8.1. Well-Known Text (WKT)

ST_BdPolyFromText — Construit un Polygon à partir d'une collection de lignes fermées, exprimées sous forme de MultiLineString en représentation Well-Known text.
ST_BdMPolyFromText — Construit un MultiPolygon à partir d'une collection de lignes fermées, exprimées sous forme de MultiLineString en représentation Well-Known text.
ST_GeogFromText — Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation Well-Know Text (WKT ou EWKT).
ST_GeographyFromText — Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation Well-Know Text (WKT ou EWKT).
ST_GeomCollFromText — Makes a collection Geometry from collection WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.
ST_GeomFromEWKT — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle étendue (Extended Well-Known Text representation, EWKT).
ST_GeometryFromText — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Text (WKT). Alias pour ST_GeomFromText
ST_GeomFromText — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Text (WKT).
ST_LineFromText — Construit une géométrie à partir d'une représentation WKT avec le SRID donné. Si aucun SRID n'est donné, la valeur par défaut est 0.
ST_MLineFromText — Retourne un objet de type ST_MultiLineString à partir de sa représentation WKT.
ST_MPointFromText — Créé une Geometry depuis un WKT avec le SRID donné. Si le SRID n'est pas fourni, il sera défini par défaut à 0.
ST_MPolyFromText — Makes a MultiPolygon Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.
ST_PointFromText — Construit une géométrie point à partir d'une représentation WKT et le SRID donné. Si aucun SRID n'est donné, la valeur par défaut est 0.
ST_PolygonFromText — Créé une Geometry depuis un WKT avec le SRID donné. Si le SRID n'est pas fourni, il sera défini par défaut à 0.
ST_WKTToSQL — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Text (WKT). Alias pour ST_GeomFromText

Name

ST_BdPolyFromText — Construit un Polygon à partir d'une collection de lignes fermées, exprimées sous forme de MultiLineString en représentation Well-Known text.

Synopsis

geometry ST_BdPolyFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

Construit un Polygon à partir d'une collection de lignes fermées, exprimées sous forme de MultiLineString en représentation Well-Known text.

[Note]

Renvoie une erreur si le WKT n'est pas une MULTILINESTRING. Renvoie une erreur si le résultat est un MULTIPOLYGON. Utiliser ST_BdMPolyFromText dans ce cas, ou voir ST_BuildArea() pour une approche basée sur une fonction spécifique.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

Performed by the GEOS module.

Disponibilité: 1.1.0


Name

ST_BdMPolyFromText — Construit un MultiPolygon à partir d'une collection de lignes fermées, exprimées sous forme de MultiLineString en représentation Well-Known text.

Synopsis

geometry ST_BdMPolyFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

Construit un Polygon à partir d'une collection de lignes fermées, de polygones ou de MultiLineStrings exprimés en représentation Well-Known text.

[Note]

Renvoie une erreur si le WKT n'est pas une MULTILINESTRING. Force le type de retour en MULTIPOLYGON même si le résultat est en fait composé d'un seul POLYGON. Utiliser ST_BdPolyFromText si l'on est sûr que le résultat produit des Polygon, ou voir la fonction spécifique PostGIS ST_BuildArea().

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

Performed by the GEOS module.

Disponibilité: 1.1.0


Name

ST_GeogFromText — Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation Well-Know Text (WKT ou EWKT).

Synopsis

geography ST_GeogFromText(text EWKT);

Description

Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation Well-Know Text (WKT ou EWKT). Le SRID 4326 est pris par défaut. Ceci est un alias pour ST_GeographyFromText. Les coordonnées des points sont exprimées en longitude latitude.

Exemples

--- converting lon lat coords to geography
ALTER TABLE sometable ADD COLUMN geog geography(POINT,4326);
UPDATE sometable SET geog = ST_GeogFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(' || lon || ' ' || lat || ')');

--- specify a geography point using EPSG:4267, NAD27
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeogFromText('SRID=4267;POINT(-77.0092 38.889588)'));
                        

Name

ST_GeographyFromText — Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation Well-Know Text (WKT ou EWKT).

Synopsis

geography ST_GeographyFromText(text EWKT);

Description

Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation Well-Know Text (WKT ou EWKT). SRID 4326 par défaut.


Name

ST_GeomCollFromText — Makes a collection Geometry from collection WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomCollFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

geometry ST_GeomCollFromText(text WKT);

Description

Makes a collection Geometry from the Well-Known-Text (WKT) representation with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - l'option SRID est issue des tests de conformité

Retourne null si le WKT n'est pas une GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

[Note]

Si vous êtes absolument sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des collections, ne pas utiliser cette fonction. Elle est plus lente que ST_GeomFromText à cause d'une étape de validation supplémentaire.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification.

Exemples

SELECT ST_GeomCollFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(1 2),LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4))');

Name

ST_GeomFromEWKT — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle étendue (Extended Well-Known Text representation, EWKT).

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromEWKT(text EWKT);

Description

Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle étendue OGC (Extended Well-Known Text representation, EWKT).

[Note]

Le format EWKT n'est pas une norme OGC, mais un format spécifique à PostGIS incluant l'identifiant du système de référence des coordonnées (SRID)

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN et surfaces polyhédriques

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4269;LINESTRING(-71.160281 42.258729,-71.160837 42.259113,-71.161144 42.25932)');
SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4269;MULTILINESTRING((-71.160281 42.258729,-71.160837 42.259113,-71.161144 42.25932))');

SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4269;POINT(-71.064544 42.28787)');

SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4269;POLYGON((-71.1776585052917 42.3902909739571,-71.1776820268866 42.3903701743239,
-71.1776063012595 42.3903825660754,-71.1775826583081 42.3903033653531,-71.1776585052917 42.3902909739571))');

SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4269;MULTIPOLYGON(((-71.1031880899493 42.3152774590236,
-71.1031627617667 42.3152960829043,-71.102923838298 42.3149156848307,
-71.1023097974109 42.3151969047397,-71.1019285062273 42.3147384934248,
-71.102505233663 42.3144722937587,-71.10277487471 42.3141658254797,
-71.103113945163 42.3142739188902,-71.10324876416 42.31402489987,
-71.1033002961013 42.3140393340215,-71.1033488797549 42.3139495090772,
-71.103396240451 42.3138632439557,-71.1041521907712 42.3141153348029,
-71.1041411411543 42.3141545014533,-71.1041287795912 42.3142114839058,
-71.1041188134329 42.3142693656241,-71.1041112482575 42.3143272556118,
-71.1041072845732 42.3143851580048,-71.1041057218871 42.3144430686681,
-71.1041065602059 42.3145009876017,-71.1041097995362 42.3145589148055,
-71.1041166403905 42.3146168544148,-71.1041258822717 42.3146748022936,
-71.1041375307579 42.3147318674446,-71.1041492906949 42.3147711126569,
-71.1041598612795 42.314808571739,-71.1042515013869 42.3151287620809,
-71.1041173835118 42.3150739481917,-71.1040809891419 42.3151344119048,
-71.1040438678912 42.3151191367447,-71.1040194562988 42.3151832057859,
-71.1038734225584 42.3151140942995,-71.1038446938243 42.3151006300338,
-71.1038315271889 42.315094347535,-71.1037393329282 42.315054824985,
-71.1035447555574 42.3152608696313,-71.1033436658644 42.3151648370544,
-71.1032580383161 42.3152269126061,-71.103223066939 42.3152517403219,
-71.1031880899493 42.3152774590236)),
((-71.1043632495873 42.315113108546,-71.1043583974082 42.3151211109857,
-71.1043443253471 42.3150676015829,-71.1043850704575 42.3150793250568,-71.1043632495873 42.315113108546)))');
--3d circular string
SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415 1,220227 150505 2,220227 150406 3)');
--Polyhedral Surface example
SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE(
        ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
        ((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)),
        ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
        ((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
        ((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)),
        ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1))
)');

Name

ST_GeometryFromText — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Text (WKT). Alias pour ST_GeomFromText

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeometryFromText(text WKT);

geometry ST_GeometryFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.40

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromText


Name

ST_GeomFromText — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Text (WKT).

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromText(text WKT);

geometry ST_GeomFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

Construit un objet Postgis de type geometry à partir d'une représentation OGC Well-Known Text WKT.

[Note]

There are two variants of ST_GeomFromText function. The first takes no SRID and returns a geometry with no defined spatial reference system (SRID=0). The second takes a SRID as the second argument and returns a geometry that includes this SRID as part of its metadata.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2 - l'option SRID est issue des tests de conformité.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.40

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

[Note]

While not OGC-compliant, ST_MakePoint is faster than ST_GeomFromText and ST_PointFromText. It is also easier to use for numeric coordinate values. ST_Point is another option similar in speed to ST_MakePoint and is OGC-compliant, but doesn't support anything but 2D points.

[Warning]

Changement: 2.0.0 dans les version précédentes de PostGIS ST_GeomFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(EMPTY)') etait autorisé. C'est désormais interdit dans PostGIS 2.0.0 pour respecter la norme SQL/MM. La forme privilégiée désormais est: ST_GeomFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION EMPTY')

Exemples

SELECT ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(-71.160281 42.258729,-71.160837 42.259113,-71.161144 42.25932)');
SELECT ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(-71.160281 42.258729,-71.160837 42.259113,-71.161144 42.25932)',4269);

SELECT ST_GeomFromText('MULTILINESTRING((-71.160281 42.258729,-71.160837 42.259113,-71.161144 42.25932))');

SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POINT(-71.064544 42.28787)');

SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((-71.1776585052917 42.3902909739571,-71.1776820268866 42.3903701743239,
-71.1776063012595 42.3903825660754,-71.1775826583081 42.3903033653531,-71.1776585052917 42.3902909739571))');

SELECT ST_GeomFromText('MULTIPOLYGON(((-71.1031880899493 42.3152774590236,
-71.1031627617667 42.3152960829043,-71.102923838298 42.3149156848307,
-71.1023097974109 42.3151969047397,-71.1019285062273 42.3147384934248,
-71.102505233663 42.3144722937587,-71.10277487471 42.3141658254797,
-71.103113945163 42.3142739188902,-71.10324876416 42.31402489987,
-71.1033002961013 42.3140393340215,-71.1033488797549 42.3139495090772,
-71.103396240451 42.3138632439557,-71.1041521907712 42.3141153348029,
-71.1041411411543 42.3141545014533,-71.1041287795912 42.3142114839058,
-71.1041188134329 42.3142693656241,-71.1041112482575 42.3143272556118,
-71.1041072845732 42.3143851580048,-71.1041057218871 42.3144430686681,
-71.1041065602059 42.3145009876017,-71.1041097995362 42.3145589148055,
-71.1041166403905 42.3146168544148,-71.1041258822717 42.3146748022936,
-71.1041375307579 42.3147318674446,-71.1041492906949 42.3147711126569,
-71.1041598612795 42.314808571739,-71.1042515013869 42.3151287620809,
-71.1041173835118 42.3150739481917,-71.1040809891419 42.3151344119048,
-71.1040438678912 42.3151191367447,-71.1040194562988 42.3151832057859,
-71.1038734225584 42.3151140942995,-71.1038446938243 42.3151006300338,
-71.1038315271889 42.315094347535,-71.1037393329282 42.315054824985,
-71.1035447555574 42.3152608696313,-71.1033436658644 42.3151648370544,
-71.1032580383161 42.3152269126061,-71.103223066939 42.3152517403219,
-71.1031880899493 42.3152774590236)),
((-71.1043632495873 42.315113108546,-71.1043583974082 42.3151211109857,
-71.1043443253471 42.3150676015829,-71.1043850704575 42.3150793250568,-71.1043632495873 42.315113108546)))',4326);

SELECT ST_GeomFromText('CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415,220227 150505,220227 150406)');
        

Name

ST_LineFromText — Construit une géométrie à partir d'une représentation WKT avec le SRID donné. Si aucun SRID n'est donné, la valeur par défaut est 0.

Synopsis

geometry ST_LineFromText(text WKT);

geometry ST_LineFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

Makes a Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0. If WKT passed in is not a LINESTRING, then null is returned.

[Note]

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - option SRID issue des tests de conformité.

[Note]

Si vous êtes sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des LINESTRINGS, la fonction ST_GeomFromText est plus efficace car elle ne contrôle pas le type de la géométrie renvoyée.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.2.8

Exemples

SELECT ST_LineFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)') AS aline, ST_LineFromText('POINT(1 2)') AS null_return;
aline                            | null_return
------------------------------------------------
010200000002000000000000000000F ... | t
                

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromText


Name

ST_MLineFromText — Retourne un objet de type ST_MultiLineString à partir de sa représentation WKT.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MLineFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

geometry ST_MLineFromText(text WKT);

Description

Makes a Geometry from Well-Known-Text (WKT) with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - l'option SRID est issue des tests de conformité

Retourne NULL si le WKT n'est pas une MULTILINESTRING

[Note]

Si vous êtes absolument sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des points, ne pas utiliser cette fonction. Elle est plus lente que ST_GeomFromText à cause d'une étape de validation supplémentaire.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification.SQL-MM 3: 9.4.4

Exemples

SELECT ST_MLineFromText('MULTILINESTRING((1 2, 3 4), (4 5, 6 7))');

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromText


Name

ST_MPointFromText — Créé une Geometry depuis un WKT avec le SRID donné. Si le SRID n'est pas fourni, il sera défini par défaut à 0.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MPointFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

geometry ST_MPointFromText(text WKT);

Description

Créé une Geometry depuis un WKT avec le SRID donné. Si le SRID n'est pas fourni, il sera défini par défaut à 0.

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - l'option SRID est issue des tests de conformité

Retourne NULL si le WKT n'est pas une MULTIPOINT

[Note]

Si vous êtes absolument sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des points, ne pas utiliser cette fonction. Elle est plus lente que ST_GeomFromText à cause d'une étape de validation supplémentaire.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. 3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 9.2.4

Exemples

SELECT ST_MPointFromText('MULTIPOINT((1 2),(3 4))');
SELECT ST_MPointFromText('MULTIPOINT((-70.9590 42.1180),(-70.9611 42.1223))', 4326);

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromText


Name

ST_MPolyFromText — Makes a MultiPolygon Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.

Synopsis

geometry ST_MPolyFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

geometry ST_MPolyFromText(text WKT);

Description

Makes a MultiPolygon from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - l'option SRID est issue des tests de conformité

Retourne une erreur si le WKT n'est pas un MULTIPOLYGON

[Note]

Si vous êtes absolument sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des multipolygones, ne pas utiliser cette fonction. Elle est plus lente que ST_GeomFromText à cause d'une étape de validation supplémentaire.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 9.6.4

Exemples

SELECT ST_MPolyFromText('MULTIPOLYGON(((0 0 1,20 0 1,20 20 1,0 20 1,0 0 1),(5 5 3,5 7 3,7 7 3,7 5 3,5 5 3)))');
SELECt ST_MPolyFromText('MULTIPOLYGON(((-70.916 42.1002,-70.9468 42.0946,-70.9765 42.0872,-70.9754 42.0875,-70.9749 42.0879,-70.9752 42.0881,-70.9754 42.0891,-70.9758 42.0894,-70.9759 42.0897,-70.9759 42.0899,-70.9754 42.0902,-70.9756 42.0906,-70.9753 42.0907,-70.9753 42.0917,-70.9757 42.0924,-70.9755 42.0928,-70.9755 42.0942,-70.9751 42.0948,-70.9755 42.0953,-70.9751 42.0958,-70.9751 42.0962,-70.9759 42.0983,-70.9767 42.0987,-70.9768 42.0991,-70.9771 42.0997,-70.9771 42.1003,-70.9768 42.1005,-70.977 42.1011,-70.9766 42.1019,-70.9768 42.1026,-70.9769 42.1033,-70.9775 42.1042,-70.9773 42.1043,-70.9776 42.1043,-70.9778 42.1048,-70.9773 42.1058,-70.9774 42.1061,-70.9779 42.1065,-70.9782 42.1078,-70.9788 42.1085,-70.9798 42.1087,-70.9806 42.109,-70.9807 42.1093,-70.9806 42.1099,-70.9809 42.1109,-70.9808 42.1112,-70.9798 42.1116,-70.9792 42.1127,-70.979 42.1129,-70.9787 42.1134,-70.979 42.1139,-70.9791 42.1141,-70.9987 42.1116,-71.0022 42.1273,
        -70.9408 42.1513,-70.9315 42.1165,-70.916 42.1002)))',4326);

Name

ST_PointFromText — Construit une géométrie point à partir d'une représentation WKT et le SRID donné. Si aucun SRID n'est donné, la valeur par défaut est 0.

Synopsis

geometry ST_PointFromText(text WKT);

geometry ST_PointFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

Constructs a PostGIS ST_Geometry point object from the OGC Well-Known text representation. If SRID is not given, it defaults to unknown (currently 0). If geometry is not a WKT point representation, returns null. If completely invalid WKT, then throws an error.

[Note]

Il existe 2 versions de la fonction ST_PointFromText: la première ne prend pas de SRID en paramètre et retourne une geometry sans système de coordonnées. La seconde prend un SRID en second paramètre et retourne une ST_Geometry incluant un SRID dans ses métadonnées. Ce SRID doit obligatoirement exister dans la table spatial_ref_sys.

[Note]

Si vous êtes absolument sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des points, ne pas utiliser cette fonction. Elle est plus lente que ST_GeomFromText à cause d'une étape de validation supplémentaire. Si le point doit être construit à partir de coordonnées latitude longitude et que la performance est recherchée, utiliser la fonction ST_MakePoint ou son équivalent OGC ST_Point.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2 - l'option SRID est issue des tests de conformité.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 6.1.8

Exemples

SELECT ST_PointFromText('POINT(-71.064544 42.28787)');
SELECT ST_PointFromText('POINT(-71.064544 42.28787)', 4326);
        

Name

ST_PolygonFromText — Créé une Geometry depuis un WKT avec le SRID donné. Si le SRID n'est pas fourni, il sera défini par défaut à 0.

Synopsis

geometry ST_PolygonFromText(text WKT);

geometry ST_PolygonFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

Makes a Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0. Returns null if WKT is not a polygon.

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - l'option SRID est issue des tests de conformité

[Note]

Si vous êtes absolument sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des polygones, ne pas utiliser cette fonction. Elle est plus lente que ST_GeomFromText à cause d'une étape de validation supplémentaire.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 8.3.6

Exemples

SELECT ST_PolygonFromText('POLYGON((-71.1776585052917 42.3902909739571,-71.1776820268866 42.3903701743239,
-71.1776063012595 42.3903825660754,-71.1775826583081 42.3903033653531,-71.1776585052917 42.3902909739571))');
st_polygonfromtext
------------------
010300000001000000050000006...


SELECT ST_PolygonFromText('POINT(1 2)') IS NULL as point_is_notpoly;

point_is_not_poly
----------
t

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromText


Name

ST_WKTToSQL — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Text (WKT). Alias pour ST_GeomFromText

Synopsis

geometry ST_WKTToSQL(text WKT);

Description

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.34

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromText

8.8.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB)

ST_GeogFromWKB — Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation binaire Well-Know Binary (WKB ou EWKB).
ST_GeomFromEWKB — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation binaire étendue (Extended Well-Known Binary representation, EWKB).
ST_GeomFromWKB — Retourne un objet de type geometry à partir de sa représentation binaire Well-Know Binary (WKB) et d'un SRID optionnel.
ST_LineFromWKB — Construit une LINESTRING depuis la représentation binaire WKB et le srid donné.
ST_LinestringFromWKB — Construit une géométrie depuis la représentation binaire WKB et le SRID donné.
ST_PointFromWKB — Construit une géométrie depuis la représentation binaire WKB et le SRID donné.
ST_WKBToSQL — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Binary (WKB). Alias pour ST_GeomFromWKB sans SRID

Name

ST_GeogFromWKB — Retourne un objet de type geography à partir de sa représentation binaire Well-Know Binary (WKB ou EWKB).

Synopsis

geography ST_GeogFromWKB(bytea wkb);

Description

ST_GeogFromWKB prend en paramètre une représentation binaire d'une géométrie (WKB ou EWKB) et crée une instance de type geography. Cette fonction assure le rôle de Geometry Factory en SQL.

Si le SRID n'est pas spécifié, la valeur 4326 est prise (WGS 84 long lat).

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

--Although bytea rep contains single \, these need to be escaped when inserting into a table
SELECT ST_AsText(
ST_GeogFromWKB(E'\\001\\002\\000\\000\\000\\002\\000\\000\\000\\037\\205\\353Q\\270~\\\\\\300\\323Mb\\020X\\231C@\\020X9\\264\\310~\\\\\\300)\\\\\\217\\302\\365\\230C@')
);
                                          st_astext
------------------------------------------------------
 LINESTRING(-113.98 39.198,-113.981 39.195)
(1 row)


Name

ST_GeomFromEWKB — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation binaire étendue (Extended Well-Known Binary representation, EWKB).

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromEWKB(bytea EWKB);

Description

Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle étendue OGC (Extended Well-Known Text representation, EWKT).

[Note]

Le format EWKB n'est pas une norme OGC, mais un format spécifique à PostGIS incluant l'identifiant du système de référence des coordonnées (SRID)

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN et surfaces polyhédriques

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

line string binary rep 0f LINESTRING(-71.160281 42.258729,-71.160837 42.259113,-71.161144 42.25932) in NAD 83 long lat (4269).

[Note]

NOTE: Si le paramètre standard_conforming_strings est à la valeur off, il est nécessaire d'échapper les caractères \ et ' avec \ et ". Ceci diffère de la représentation AsEWKB.

SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKB(E'\\001\\002\\000\\000 \\255\\020\\000\\000\\003\\000\\000\\000\\344J=
\\013B\\312Q\\300n\\303(\\010\\036!E@''\\277E''K
\\312Q\\300\\366{b\\235*!E@\\225|\\354.P\\312Q
\\300p\\231\\323e1!E@');
[Note]

In PostgreSQL 9.1+ - standard_conforming_strings is set to on by default, where as in past versions it was set to off. You can change defaults as needed for a single query or at the database or server level. Below is how you would do it with standard_conforming_strings = on. In this case we escape the ' with standard ansi ', but slashes are not escaped

set standard_conforming_strings = on;
SELECT ST_GeomFromEWKB('\001\002\000\000 \255\020\000\000\003\000\000\000\344J=\012\013B
    \312Q\300n\303(\010\036!E@''\277E''K\012\312Q\300\366{b\235*!E@\225|\354.P\312Q\012\300p\231\323e1')

Name

ST_GeomFromWKB — Retourne un objet de type geometry à partir de sa représentation binaire Well-Know Binary (WKB) et d'un SRID optionnel.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromWKB(bytea geom);

geometry ST_GeomFromWKB(bytea geom, integer srid);

Description

ST_GeomFromWKB prend en paramètre une représentation binaire d'une géométrie (WKB ou EWKB) et un SRID optionnel (SRID) et crée une instance de type geometry. Cette fonction assure le rôle de Geometry Factory en SQL. Alias pour ST_WKBToSQL.

Si le SRID n'est pas précisé, la valeur 0 (indéfini) est prise par défaut.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.7.2 - le paramètre optionnel est issu des tests de conformité.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.41

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

--Although bytea rep contains single \, these need to be escaped when inserting into a table
                -- unless standard_conforming_strings is set to on.
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(
ST_GeomFromWKB(E'\\001\\002\\000\\000\\000\\002\\000\\000\\000\\037\\205\\353Q\\270~\\\\\\300\\323Mb\\020X\\231C@\\020X9\\264\\310~\\\\\\300)\\\\\\217\\302\\365\\230C@',4326)
);
                                          st_asewkt
------------------------------------------------------
 SRID=4326;LINESTRING(-113.98 39.198,-113.981 39.195)
(1 row)

SELECT
  ST_AsText(
        ST_GeomFromWKB(
          ST_AsEWKB('POINT(2 5)'::geometry)
        )
  );
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(2 5)
(1 row)

Name

ST_LineFromWKB — Construit une LINESTRING depuis la représentation binaire WKB et le srid donné.

Synopsis

geometry ST_LineFromWKB(bytea WKB);

geometry ST_LineFromWKB(bytea WKB, integer srid);

Description

ST_LineFromWKB prend en paramètre une représentation binaire d'une géométrie (WKB ou EWKB) et un SRID (SRID) et crée une instance du bon type géométrique, en l'occurence une LINESTRING. Cette fonction assure le rôle de Geometry Factory en SQL.

Si le SRID n'est pas précisé, la valeur 0 est prise par défaut. NULL est retourné si le paramètre bytea donné ne représente pas une LINESTRING.

[Note]

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - option SRID issue des tests de conformité.

[Note]

Si vous êtes sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des LINESTRINGs, la fonction ST_GeomFromWKB est plus efficace car elle ne contrôle pas le type de la géométrie renvoyée.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.2.9

Exemples

SELECT ST_LineFromWKB(ST_AsBinary(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)'))) AS aline,
                ST_LineFromWKB(ST_AsBinary(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'))) IS NULL AS null_return;
aline                            | null_return
------------------------------------------------
010200000002000000000000000000F ... | t
                

Name

ST_LinestringFromWKB — Construit une géométrie depuis la représentation binaire WKB et le SRID donné.

Synopsis

geometry ST_LinestringFromWKB(bytea WKB);

geometry ST_LinestringFromWKB(bytea WKB, integer srid);

Description

La fonction ST_LinestringFromWKB prend en paramètre une représentation binaire d'une géométrie (WKB ou EWKB) et un SRID (SRID) et crée une instance du bon type géométrique, en l'occurence une LINESTRING. Cette fonction assure le rôle de Geometry Factory en SQL.

Si le SRID n'est pas précisé, la valeur 0 est prise par défaut. NULL est retourné si le paramètre bytea donné ne représente pas une LINESTRING. Alias pour ST_LineFromWKB.

[Note]

OGC SPEC 3.2.6.2 - SRID optionnel issu des tests de conformité.

[Note]

Si vous êtes sûrs que toutes les géométries WKT sont des LINESTRINGs, la fonction ST_GeomFromWKB est plus efficace car elle ne contrôle pas le type de la géométrie renvoyée.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.6.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 7.2.9

Exemples

SELECT
  ST_LineStringFromWKB(
        ST_AsBinary(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)'))
  ) AS aline,
  ST_LinestringFromWKB(
        ST_AsBinary(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'))
  ) IS NULL AS null_return;
   aline                            | null_return
------------------------------------------------
010200000002000000000000000000F ... | t

Name

ST_PointFromWKB — Construit une géométrie depuis la représentation binaire WKB et le SRID donné.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromWKB(bytea geom);

geometry ST_GeomFromWKB(bytea geom, integer srid);

Description

ST_PointFromWKB prend en paramètre une représentation binaire d'une géométrie et un SRID (SRID) et crée une instance du bon type géométrique, en l'occurence une POINT . Cette fonction assure le rôle de Geometry Factory en SQL.

Si le SRID n'est pas précisé, la valeur 0 est prise par défaut. NULL est retourné si le paramètre bytea donné ne représente pas une géométrie POINT.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s3.2.7.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 6.1.9

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT
  ST_AsText(
        ST_PointFromWKB(
          ST_AsEWKB('POINT(2 5)'::geometry)
        )
  );
 st_astext
------------
 POINT(2 5)
(1 row)

SELECT
  ST_AsText(
        ST_PointFromWKB(
          ST_AsEWKB('LINESTRING(2 5, 2 6)'::geometry)
        )
  );
 st_astext
-----------

(1 row)

Name

ST_WKBToSQL — Retourne un objet ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation textuelle Well-Known Binary (WKB). Alias pour ST_GeomFromWKB sans SRID

Synopsis

geometry ST_WKBToSQL(bytea WKB);

Description

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.36

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromWKB

8.8.3. Other Formats

ST_Box2dFromGeoHash — Retourne une BOX2D à partir d'une chaîne GeoHash.
ST_GeomFromGeoHash — Retourne une geometry depuis une chaîne GeoHash.
ST_GeomFromGML — Prend en paramètre une représentation GML d'une géométrie et renvoie un objet PostGIS de type geometry.
ST_GeomFromGeoJSON — Prend en entrée une géométrie au format geojson et renvoie un objet Postgis de type geometry.
ST_GeomFromKML — Prend en entrée une géométrie au format KML et renvoie un objet Postgis de type geometry.
ST_GeomFromTWKB — Crée une instance de geometry depuis une représentation de géométrie en TWKB ("Tiny Well-Known Binary").
ST_GMLToSQL — Retourne un objet de type ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation GML. Alias pour ST_GeomFromGML
ST_LineFromEncodedPolyline — Crée une LineString depuis une polyligne encodée ( "Encoded Polyline" )
ST_PointFromGeoHash — Retourne un point à partir d'une chaîne GeoHash.
ST_FromFlatGeobufToTable — Creates a table based on the structure of FlatGeobuf data.
ST_FromFlatGeobuf — Reads FlatGeobuf data.

Name

ST_Box2dFromGeoHash — Retourne une BOX2D à partir d'une chaîne GeoHash.

Synopsis

box2d ST_Box2dFromGeoHash(text geohash, integer precision=full_precision_of_geohash);

Description

Retourne une BOX2D à partir d'une chaîne GeoHash.

If no precision is specified ST_Box2dFromGeoHash returns a BOX2D based on full precision of the input GeoHash string.

Si precision est spécifié, ST_Box2dFromGeoHash utilise autant de caractère du GeoHash pour créer la BOX2D. Une précision plus basse retourne des BOXD2 plus grandes, et une valeur plus haute améliore la précision.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Exemples

SELECT ST_Box2dFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0');

                st_geomfromgeohash
--------------------------------------------------
 BOX(-115.172816 36.114646,-115.172816 36.114646)

SELECT ST_Box2dFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0', 0);

 st_box2dfromgeohash
----------------------
 BOX(-180 -90,180 90)

 SELECT ST_Box2dFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0', 10);
                            st_box2dfromgeohash
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 BOX(-115.17282128334 36.1146408319473,-115.172810554504 36.1146461963654)
                
                

Name

ST_GeomFromGeoHash — Retourne une geometry depuis une chaîne GeoHash.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromGeoHash(text geohash, integer precision=full_precision_of_geohash);

Description

Retourne une Geometry à partir d'une chaîne GeoHash. La géométrie sera un polygone représentant les limites du GeoHash.

Si aucune precision n'est spécifiée, ST_GeomFromGeoHash retourne un polygone basé sur la précision complète de la chaîne GeoHash en entrée.

Si precision est spécifié, ST_GeomFromGeoHash utilise autant de caractère du GeoHash pour créer le polygone.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeomFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0'));
                                                        st_astext
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((-115.172816 36.114646,-115.172816 36.114646,-115.172816 36.114646,-115.172816 36.114646,-115.172816 36.114646))

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeomFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0', 4));
                                                          st_astext
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((-115.3125 36.03515625,-115.3125 36.2109375,-114.9609375 36.2109375,-114.9609375 36.03515625,-115.3125 36.03515625))

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeomFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0', 10));
                                                                                       st_astext
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 POLYGON((-115.17282128334 36.1146408319473,-115.17282128334 36.1146461963654,-115.172810554504 36.1146461963654,-115.172810554504 36.1146408319473,-115.17282128334 36.1146408319473))
                
                

Name

ST_GeomFromGML — Prend en paramètre une représentation GML d'une géométrie et renvoie un objet PostGIS de type geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromGML(text geomgml);

geometry ST_GeomFromGML(text geomgml, integer srid);

Description

Construit un objet PostGIS ST_Geometry à partir d'une représentation GML OGC.

La fonction ST_GeomFromGML fonctionne uniquement avec le fragment GML représentant la géométrie. Elle renvoie une error si un document GML complet est utilisé.

version OGC GML supportée:

  • GML 3.2.1 Namespace

  • GML 3.1.1 Simple Features profile SF-2 (with GML 3.1.0 and 3.0.0 backward compatibility)

  • GML 2.1.2

OGC GML standards, cf: http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml:

Disponibilité: 1.5, nécessite libxml2 1.6+

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN et surfaces polyhédriques

Amélioration: 2.0.0 paramètre optionnel de srid par défaut ajouté.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Le format GML supporte des objets de dimensions différentes (2D et 3D dans la même MultiGeometry par exemple). PostGIS ne supportant pas cela, la fonction convertit toute la géometrie en 2D si une seule coordonnée Z manque.

Le format GML supporte des objets ayant des SRID différents dans la même MultiGeometry. PostGIS ne supportant pas cela, ST_GeomFromGML reprojète toutes les sous géométries dans le SRS du noeud racine. Si aucun attribut srsName n'est disponible pour le noeud racine GML, la fonction renvoie une erreur.

La fonction ST_GeomFromGML n'impose pas d'utiliser un espace de noms GML explicite. Pour les usages courants, il peut être ignoré. Il est en revanche nécessaire en cas d'utilisation de la fonctionnalité XLink dans le GML.

[Note]

La fonction ST_GeomFromGML ne supporte pas les géométries de type SQL/MM courbes.

Exemple: une géométrie unique avec srsName

SELECT ST_GeomFromGML('
                <gml:LineString srsName="EPSG:4269">
                        <gml:coordinates>
                                -71.16028,42.258729 -71.160837,42.259112 -71.161143,42.25932
                        </gml:coordinates>
                </gml:LineString
>');
                

Exemple - utilisation de XLink

SELECT ST_GeomFromGML('
                <gml:LineString xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
                                xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
                                srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4269">
                        <gml:pointProperty>
                                <gml:Point gml:id="p1"><gml:pos>42.258729 -71.16028</gml:pos></gml:Point>
                        </gml:pointProperty>
                        <gml:pos>42.259112 -71.160837</gml:pos>
                        <gml:pointProperty>
                                <gml:Point xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="#p1"/>
                        </gml:pointProperty>
                </gml:LineString>'););
                

Exemple - Surface Polyhédrique

SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeomFromGML('
<gml:PolyhedralSurface>
<gml:polygonPatches>
  <gml:PolygonPatch>
    <gml:exterior>
      <gml:LinearRing><gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0</gml:posList></gml:LinearRing>
    </gml:exterior>
  </gml:PolygonPatch>
  <gml:PolygonPatch>
    <gml:exterior>
        <gml:LinearRing><gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0</gml:posList></gml:LinearRing>
    </gml:exterior>
  </gml:PolygonPatch>
  <gml:PolygonPatch>
    <gml:exterior>
        <gml:LinearRing><gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0</gml:posList></gml:LinearRing>
    </gml:exterior>
  </gml:PolygonPatch>
  <gml:PolygonPatch>
    <gml:exterior>
        <gml:LinearRing><gml:posList srsDimension="3">1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0</gml:posList></gml:LinearRing>
    </gml:exterior>
  </gml:PolygonPatch>
  <gml:PolygonPatch>
    <gml:exterior>
        <gml:LinearRing><gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0</gml:posList></gml:LinearRing>
    </gml:exterior>
  </gml:PolygonPatch>
  <gml:PolygonPatch>
    <gml:exterior>
        <gml:LinearRing><gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1</gml:posList></gml:LinearRing>
    </gml:exterior>
  </gml:PolygonPatch>
</gml:polygonPatches>
</gml:PolyhedralSurface>'));

-- result --
 POLYHEDRALSURFACE(((0 0 0,0 0 1,0 1 1,0 1 0,0 0 0)),
 ((0 0 0,0 1 0,1 1 0,1 0 0,0 0 0)),
 ((0 0 0,1 0 0,1 0 1,0 0 1,0 0 0)),
 ((1 1 0,1 1 1,1 0 1,1 0 0,1 1 0)),
 ((0 1 0,0 1 1,1 1 1,1 1 0,0 1 0)),
 ((0 0 1,1 0 1,1 1 1,0 1 1,0 0 1)))
                

Name

ST_GeomFromGeoJSON — Prend en entrée une géométrie au format geojson et renvoie un objet Postgis de type geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromGeoJSON(text geomjson);

geometry ST_GeomFromGeoJSON(json geomjson);

geometry ST_GeomFromGeoJSON(jsonb geomjson);

Description

Construit un objet Postgis de type geometry à partir d'une représentation GeoJSON.

La fonction ST_GeomFromGeoJSON fonctionne uniquement avec le fragment JSON représentant la géométrie. Elle renvoie une erreur si un document JSON complet est utilisé.

Enhanced: 3.0.0 parsed geometry defaults to SRID=4326 if not specified otherwise.

Enhanced: 2.5.0 can now accept json and jsonb as inputs.

Disponibilité: 2.0.0 nécessite JSON-C >= 0.9

[Note]

Si JSON-C n'est pas disponible sur le système, une erreur est renvoyée. Pour activer JSON-C, lancer configure --with-jsondir=/path/to/json-c. Cf. Section 2.2.3, “Configuration” pour plus de détails.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeomFromGeoJSON('{"type":"Point","coordinates":[-48.23456,20.12345]}')) As wkt;
wkt
------
POINT(-48.23456 20.12345)
-- a 3D linestring
SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeomFromGeoJSON('{"type":"LineString","coordinates":[[1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9]]}')) As wkt;

wkt
-------------------
LINESTRING(1 2,4 5,7 8)

Name

ST_GeomFromKML — Prend en entrée une géométrie au format KML et renvoie un objet Postgis de type geometry.

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromKML(text geomkml);

Description

Construit un objet Postgis de type geometry à partir d'une représentation OGC KML.

La fonction ST_GeomFromKML fonctionne uniquement avec le fragment KML représentant la géométrie. Elle renvoie une erreur si un document KML complet est utilisé.

versions OGC KML supportées:

  • KML 2.2.0 Namespace

OGC KML standards, cf: http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/kml:

Availability: 1.5, requires libxml2 2.6+

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

[Note]

La fonction ST_GeomFromGML ne supporte pas les géométries de type SQL/MM courbes.

Exemple: une géométrie unique avec srsName

SELECT ST_GeomFromKML('
                <LineString>
                        <coordinates>-71.1663,42.2614
                                -71.1667,42.2616</coordinates>
                </LineString>');
                

Name

ST_GeomFromTWKB — Crée une instance de geometry depuis une représentation de géométrie en TWKB ("Tiny Well-Known Binary").

Synopsis

geometry ST_GeomFromTWKB(bytea twkb);

Description

La fonction ST_GeomFromTWKB prend une représentation de géométrie TWKB ("Tiny Well-Known Binary") et crée une instance du type de géométrie approprié.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeomFromTWKB(ST_AsTWKB('LINESTRING(126 34, 127 35)'::geometry)));

         st_astext
-----------------------------
 LINESTRING(126 34, 127 35)
(1 row)


SELECT ST_AsEWKT(
  ST_GeomFromTWKB(E'\\x620002f7f40dbce4040105')
);
                                          st_asewkt
------------------------------------------------------
LINESTRING(-113.98 39.198,-113.981 39.195)
(1 row)

Voir aussi

ST_AsTWKB


Name

ST_GMLToSQL — Retourne un objet de type ST_Geometry à partir de sa représentation GML. Alias pour ST_GeomFromGML

Synopsis

geometry ST_GMLToSQL(text geomgml);

geometry ST_GMLToSQL(text geomgml, integer srid);

Description

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.50 (sauf pour le support des courbes).

Disponibilité: 1.5, nécessite libxml2 1.6+

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN et surfaces polyhédriques

Amélioration: 2.0.0 paramètre optionnel de srid par défaut ajouté.


Name

ST_LineFromEncodedPolyline — Crée une LineString depuis une polyligne encodée ( "Encoded Polyline" )

Synopsis

geometry ST_LineFromEncodedPolyline(text polyline, integer precision=5);

Description

Crée une LineString à partir d'une chaîne de polyligne encodée ( "Encoded Polyline")

Optional precision specifies how many decimal places will be preserved in Encoded Polyline. Value should be the same on encoding and decoding, or coordinates will be incorrect.

Voir http://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/utilities/polylinealgorithm

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

Exemples

-- Create a line string from a polyline
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_LineFromEncodedPolyline('_p~iF~ps|U_ulLnnqC_mqNvxq`@'));
-- result --
SRID=4326;LINESTRING(-120.2 38.5,-120.95 40.7,-126.453 43.252)

-- Select different precision that was used for polyline encoding
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_LineFromEncodedPolyline('_p~iF~ps|U_ulLnnqC_mqNvxq`@',6));
-- result --
SRID=4326;LINESTRING(-12.02 3.85,-12.095 4.07,-12.6453 4.3252)

    

Name

ST_PointFromGeoHash — Retourne un point à partir d'une chaîne GeoHash.

Synopsis

point ST_PointFromGeoHash(text geohash, integer precision=full_precision_of_geohash);

Description

Retourne une point à partir d'une chaîne GeoHash. Le point représente le centre du GeoHash.

Si aucune precision n'est spécifiée, ST_PointFromGeoHash retourne une un point basé sur la précision complète de la chaîne GeoHash en entrée.

Si precision est spécifié, ST_PointFromGeoHash utilise autant de caractère du GeoHash pour créer le point.

Disponibilité: 2.1.0

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0'));
          st_astext
------------------------------
 POINT(-115.172816 36.114646)

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0', 4));
             st_astext
-----------------------------------
 POINT(-115.13671875 36.123046875)

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_PointFromGeoHash('9qqj7nmxncgyy4d0dbxqz0', 10));
                 st_astext
-------------------------------------------
 POINT(-115.172815918922 36.1146435141563)
                
                

Name

ST_FromFlatGeobufToTable — Creates a table based on the structure of FlatGeobuf data.

Synopsis

geometry ST_BdPolyFromText(text WKT, integer srid);

Description

Creates a table based on the structure of FlatGeobuf data. (http://flatgeobuf.org).

schema Schema name.

table Table name.

data Input FlatGeobuf data.

Availability: 3.2.0


Name

ST_FromFlatGeobuf — Reads FlatGeobuf data.

Synopsis

setof anyelement ST_FromFlatGeobuf(anyelement Table reference, bytea FlatGeobuf input data);

Description

Reads FlatGeobuf data (http://flatgeobuf.org). NOTE: PostgreSQL bytea cannot exceed 1GB.

tabletype reference to a table type.

data input FlatGeobuf data.

Availability: 3.2.0

8.9. Geometry Output

Abstract

These functions convert geometry objects into various textual or binary formats.

8.9.1. Well-Known Text (WKT)

ST_AsEWKT — Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
ST_AsText — Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata.

Name

ST_AsEWKT — Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.

Synopsis

text ST_AsEWKT(geometry g1);

text ST_AsEWKT(geometry g1, integer maxdecimaldigits=15);

text ST_AsEWKT(geography g1);

text ST_AsEWKT(geography g1, integer maxdecimaldigits=15);

Description

Returns the Well-Known Text representation of the geometry prefixed with the SRID. The optional maxdecimaldigits argument may be used to reduce the maximum number of decimal digits after floating point used in output (defaults to 15).

To perform the inverse conversion of EWKT representation to PostGIS geometry use ST_GeomFromEWKT.

[Warning]

Using the maxdecimaldigits parameter can cause output geometry to become invalid. To avoid this use ST_ReducePrecision with a suitable gridsize first.

[Note]

The WKT spec does not include the SRID. To get the OGC WKT format use ST_AsText.

[Warning]

WKT format does not maintain precision so to prevent floating truncation, use ST_AsBinary or ST_AsEWKB format for transport.

Enhanced: 3.1.0 support for optional precision parameter.

Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Geography, Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsEWKT('0103000020E61000000100000005000000000000
                        000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
                        F03F000000000000F03F000000000000F03F000000000000F03
                        F000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000'::geometry);

                   st_asewkt
--------------------------------
SRID=4326;POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))
(1 row)

SELECT ST_AsEWKT('0108000080030000000000000060E30A4100000000785C0241000000000000F03F0000000018
E20A4100000000485F024100000000000000400000000018
E20A4100000000305C02410000000000000840')

--st_asewkt---
CIRCULARSTRING(220268 150415 1,220227 150505 2,220227 150406 3)

Name

ST_AsText — Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata.

Synopsis

text ST_AsText(geometry g1);

text ST_AsText(geometry g1, integer maxdecimaldigits = 15);

text ST_AsText(geography g1);

text ST_AsText(geography g1, integer maxdecimaldigits = 15);

Description

Returns the OGC Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography. The optional maxdecimaldigits argument may be used to limit the number of digits after the decimal point in output ordinates (defaults to 15).

To perform the inverse conversion of WKT representation to PostGIS geometry use ST_GeomFromText.

[Note]

The standard OGC WKT representation does not include the SRID. To include the SRID as part of the output representation, use the non-standard PostGIS function ST_AsEWKT

[Warning]

The textual representation of numbers in WKT may not maintain full floating-point precision. To ensure full accuracy for data storage or transport it is best to use Well-Known Binary (WKB) format (see ST_AsBinary and maxdecimaldigits).

[Warning]

Using the maxdecimaldigits parameter can cause output geometry to become invalid. To avoid this use ST_ReducePrecision with a suitable gridsize first.

Availability: 1.5 - support for geography was introduced.

Enhanced: 2.5 - optional parameter precision introduced.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.25

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText('01030000000100000005000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
F03F000000000000F03F000000000000F03F000000000000F03
F000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000');

    st_astext
--------------------------------
 POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))

Full precision output is the default.

SELECT ST_AsText('POINT(111.1111111 1.1111111)'));
    st_astext
------------------------------
 POINT(111.1111111 1.1111111)

The maxdecimaldigits argument can be used to limit output precision.

SELECT ST_AsText('POINT(111.1111111 1.1111111)'), 2);
    st_astext
--------------------
 POINT(111.11 1.11)

8.9.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB)

ST_AsBinary — Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
ST_AsEWKB — Return the Extended Well-Known Binary (EWKB) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
ST_AsHEXEWKB — Returns a Geometry in HEXEWKB format (as text) using either little-endian (NDR) or big-endian (XDR) encoding.

Name

ST_AsBinary — Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.

Synopsis

bytea ST_AsBinary(geometry g1);

bytea ST_AsBinary(geometry g1, text NDR_or_XDR);

bytea ST_AsBinary(geography g1);

bytea ST_AsBinary(geography g1, text NDR_or_XDR);

Description

Returns the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry. The first function variant defaults to encoding using server machine endian. The second function variant takes a text argument specifying the endian encoding, either little-endian ('NDR') or big-endian ('XDR').

WKB format is useful to read geometry data from the database and maintaining full numeric precision. This avoids the precision rounding that can happen with text formats such as WKT.

To perform the inverse conversion of WKB to PostGIS geometry use ST_GeomFromWKB.

[Note]

The OGC/ISO WKB format does not include the SRID. To get the EWKB format which does include the SRID use ST_AsEWKB

[Note]

The default behavior in PostgreSQL 9.0 has been changed to output bytea in hex encoding. If your GUI tools require the old behavior, then SET bytea_output='escape' in your database.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN, Triangles et surfaces polyhédriques.

Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for higher coordinate dimensions was introduced.

Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for specifying endian with geography was introduced.

Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced.

Changed: 2.0.0 Inputs to this function can not be unknown -- must be geometry. Constructs such as ST_AsBinary('POINT(1 2)') are no longer valid and you will get an n st_asbinary(unknown) is not unique error. Code like that needs to be changed to ST_AsBinary('POINT(1 2)'::geometry);. If that is not possible, then install legacy.sql.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.1

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.37

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsBinary(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326));

                   st_asbinary
--------------------------------
\x01030000000100000005000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000f03f000000000000f03f000000000000f03f000000000000f03f0000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000
SELECT ST_AsBinary(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326), 'XDR');
                   st_asbinary
--------------------------------
\x000000000300000001000000050000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003ff000
00000000003ff00000000000003ff00000000000003ff00000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000

Name

ST_AsEWKB — Return the Extended Well-Known Binary (EWKB) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.

Synopsis

bytea ST_AsEWKB(geometry g1);

bytea ST_AsEWKB(geometry g1, text NDR_or_XDR);

Description

Returns the Extended Well-Known Binary (EWKB) representation of the geometry with SRID metadata. The first function variant defaults to encoding using server machine endian. The second function variant takes a text argument specifying the endian encoding, either little-endian ('NDR') or big-endian ('XDR').

WKB format is useful to read geometry data from the database and maintaining full numeric precision. This avoids the precision rounding that can happen with text formats such as WKT.

To perform the inverse conversion of EWKB to PostGIS geometry use ST_GeomFromEWKB.

[Note]

To get the OGC/ISO WKB format use ST_AsBinary. Note that OGC/ISO WKB format does not include the SRID.

Amélioration: 2.0.0 introduction du support TIN, Triangles et surfaces polyhédriques.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsEWKB(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326));

                   st_asewkb
--------------------------------
\x0103000020e610000001000000050000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000f03f000000000000f03f000000000000f03f000000000000f03f00000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000
SELECT ST_AsEWKB(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326), 'XDR');
                   st_asewkb
--------------------------------
\x0020000003000010e600000001000000050000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
003ff00000000000003ff00000000000003ff00000000000003ff000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000
                

Name

ST_AsHEXEWKB — Returns a Geometry in HEXEWKB format (as text) using either little-endian (NDR) or big-endian (XDR) encoding.

Synopsis

text ST_AsHEXEWKB(geometry g1, text NDRorXDR);

text ST_AsHEXEWKB(geometry g1);

Description

Returns a Geometry in HEXEWKB format (as text) using either little-endian (NDR) or big-endian (XDR) encoding. If no encoding is specified, then NDR is used.

[Note]

Availability: 1.2.2

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsHEXEWKB(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326));
                which gives same answer as

                SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326)::text;

                st_ashexewkb
                --------
                0103000020E6100000010000000500
                00000000000000000000000000000000
                00000000000000000000000000000000F03F
                000000000000F03F000000000000F03F000000000000F03
                F000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

8.9.3. Other Formats

ST_AsEncodedPolyline — Returns an Encoded Polyline from a LineString geometry.
ST_AsFlatGeobuf — Return a FlatGeobuf representation of a set of rows.
ST_AsGeobuf — Return a Geobuf representation of a set of rows.
ST_AsGeoJSON — Return a geometry as a GeoJSON element.
ST_AsGML — Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
ST_AsKML — Return the geometry as a KML element.
ST_AsLatLonText — Return the Degrees, Minutes, Seconds representation of the given point.
ST_AsMVTGeom — Transform a geometry into the coordinate space of a Mapbox Vector Tile.
ST_AsMVT — Aggregate function returning a Mapbox Vector Tile representation of a set of rows.
ST_AsSVG — Returns SVG path data for a geometry.
ST_AsTWKB — Returns the geometry as TWKB, aka "Tiny Well-Known Binary"
ST_AsX3D — Returns a Geometry in X3D xml node element format: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML
ST_GeoHash — Return a GeoHash representation of the geometry.

Name

ST_AsEncodedPolyline — Returns an Encoded Polyline from a LineString geometry.

Synopsis

text ST_AsEncodedPolyline(geometry geom, integer precision=5);

Description

Returns the geometry as an Encoded Polyline. This format is used by Google Maps with precision=5 and by Open Source Routing Machine with precision=5 and 6.

Optional precision specifies how many decimal places will be preserved in Encoded Polyline. Value should be the same on encoding and decoding, or coordinates will be incorrect.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

Exemples

Basic

SELECT ST_AsEncodedPolyline(GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4326;LINESTRING(-120.2 38.5,-120.95 40.7,-126.453 43.252)'));
        --result--
        |_p~iF~ps|U_ulLnnqC_mqNvxq`@
        

Use in conjunction with geography linestring and geography segmentize, and put on google maps

-- the SQL for Boston to San Francisco, segments every 100 KM
        SELECT ST_AsEncodedPolyline(
                ST_Segmentize(
                        ST_GeogFromText('LINESTRING(-71.0519 42.4935,-122.4483 37.64)'),
                                100000)::geometry) As encodedFlightPath;

javascript will look something like this where $ variable you replace with query result

<script type="text/javascript" src="http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/js?libraries=geometry"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
         flightPath = new google.maps.Polyline({
                        path:  google.maps.geometry.encoding.decodePath("$encodedFlightPath"),
                        map: map,
                        strokeColor: '#0000CC',
                        strokeOpacity: 1.0,
                        strokeWeight: 4
                });
</script>
        

Name

ST_AsFlatGeobuf — Return a FlatGeobuf representation of a set of rows.

Synopsis

bytea ST_AsFlatGeobuf(anyelement set row);

bytea ST_AsFlatGeobuf(anyelement row, bool index);

bytea ST_AsFlatGeobuf(anyelement row, bool index, text geom_name);

Description

Return a FlatGeobuf representation (http://flatgeobuf.org) of a set of rows corresponding to a FeatureCollection. NOTE: PostgreSQL bytea cannot exceed 1GB.

row row data with at least a geometry column.

index toggle spatial index creation. Default is false.

geom_name is the name of the geometry column in the row data. If NULL it will default to the first found geometry column.

Availability: 3.2.0


Name

ST_AsGeobuf — Return a Geobuf representation of a set of rows.

Synopsis

bytea ST_AsGeobuf(anyelement set row);

bytea ST_AsGeobuf(anyelement row, text geom_name);

Description

Return a Geobuf representation (https://github.com/mapbox/geobuf) of a set of rows corresponding to a FeatureCollection. Every input geometry is analyzed to determine maximum precision for optimal storage. Note that Geobuf in its current form cannot be streamed so the full output will be assembled in memory.

row row data with at least a geometry column.

geom_name is the name of the geometry column in the row data. If NULL it will default to the first found geometry column.

Availability: 2.4.0

Exemples

SELECT encode(ST_AsGeobuf(q, 'geom'), 'base64')
    FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))') AS geom) AS q;
 st_asgeobuf
----------------------------------
 GAAiEAoOCgwIBBoIAAAAAgIAAAE=

                
                

Name

ST_AsGeoJSON — Return a geometry as a GeoJSON element.

Synopsis

text ST_AsGeoJSON(record feature, text geomcolumnname, integer maxdecimaldigits=9, boolean pretty_bool=false);

text ST_AsGeoJSON(geometry geom, integer maxdecimaldigits=9, integer options=8);

text ST_AsGeoJSON(geography geog, integer maxdecimaldigits=9, integer options=0);

Description

Returns a geometry as a GeoJSON "geometry", or a row as a GeoJSON "feature". (See the GeoJSON specifications RFC 7946). 2D and 3D Geometries are both supported. GeoJSON only support SFS 1.1 geometry types (no curve support for example).

The maxdecimaldigits argument may be used to reduce the maximum number of decimal places used in output (defaults to 9). If you are using EPSG:4326 and are outputting the geometry only for display, maxdecimaldigits=6 can be a good choice for many maps.

[Warning]

Using the maxdecimaldigits parameter can cause output geometry to become invalid. To avoid this use ST_ReducePrecision with a suitable gridsize first.

The options argument can be used to add BBOX or CRS in GeoJSON output:

  • 0: means no option

  • 1: GeoJSON BBOX

  • 2: GeoJSON Short CRS (e.g EPSG:4326)

  • 4: GeoJSON Long CRS (e.g urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326)

  • 8: GeoJSON Short CRS if not EPSG:4326 (default)

The GeoJSON specification states that polygons are oriented using the Right-Hand Rule, and some clients require this orientation. This can be ensured by using ST_ForcePolygonCCW . The specification also requires that geometry be in the WGS84 coordinate system (SRID = 4326). If necessary geometry can be projected into WGS84 using ST_Transform: ST_Transform( geom, 4326 ).

GeoJSON can be tested and viewed online at geojson.io and geojsonlint.com. It is widely supported by web mapping frameworks:

Availability: 1.3.4

Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced.

Changed: 2.0.0 support default args and named args.

Changed: 3.0.0 support records as input

Changed: 3.0.0 output SRID if not EPSG:4326.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

Generate a FeatureCollection:

SELECT json_build_object(
    'type', 'FeatureCollection',
    'features', json_agg(ST_AsGeoJSON(t.*)::json)
    )
FROM ( VALUES (1, 'one', 'POINT(1 1)'::geometry),
              (2, 'two', 'POINT(2 2)'),
              (3, 'three', 'POINT(3 3)')
     ) as t(id, name, geom);
{"type" : "FeatureCollection", "features" : [{"type": "Feature", "geometry": {"type":"Point","coordinates":[1,1]}, "properties": {"id": 1, "name": "one"}}, {"type": "Feature", "geometry": {"type":"Point","coordinates":[2,2]}, "properties": {"id": 2, "name": "two"}}, {"type": "Feature", "geometry": {"type":"Point","coordinates":[3,3]}, "properties": {"id": 3, "name": "three"}}]}

Generate a Feature:

SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(t.*)
FROM (VALUES (1, 'one', 'POINT(1 1)'::geometry)) AS t(id, name, geom);
st_asgeojson
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 {"type": "Feature", "geometry": {"type":"Point","coordinates":[1,1]}, "properties": {"id": 1, "name": "one"}}

An alternate way to generate Features with an id property is to use JSONB functions and operators:

SELECT jsonb_build_object(
    'type',       'Feature',
    'id',         id,
    'geometry',   ST_AsGeoJSON(geom)::jsonb,
    'properties', to_jsonb( t.* ) - 'id' - 'geom'
    ) AS json
FROM (VALUES (1, 'one', 'POINT(1 1)'::geometry)) AS t(id, name, geom);
json
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 {"id": 1, "type": "Feature", "geometry": {"type": "Point", "coordinates": [1, 1]}, "properties": {"name": "one"}}

Don't forget to transform your data to WGS84 longitude, latitude to conform with the GeoJSON specification:

SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(ST_Transform(geom,4326)) from fe_edges limit 1;
st_asgeojson
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

{"type":"MultiLineString","coordinates":[[[-89.734634999999997,31.492072000000000],
[-89.734955999999997,31.492237999999997]]]}

3D geometries are supported:

SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON('LINESTRING(1 2 3, 4 5 6)');
{"type":"LineString","coordinates":[[1,2,3],[4,5,6]]}

Name

ST_AsGML — Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.

Synopsis

text ST_AsGML(geometry geom, integer maxdecimaldigits=15, integer options=0);

text ST_AsGML(geography geog, integer maxdecimaldigits=15, integer options=0, text nprefix=null, text id=null);

text ST_AsGML(integer version, geometry geom, integer maxdecimaldigits=15, integer options=0, text nprefix=null, text id=null);

text ST_AsGML(integer version, geography geog, integer maxdecimaldigits=15, integer options=0, text nprefix=null, text id=null);

Description

Return the geometry as a Geography Markup Language (GML) element. The version parameter, if specified, may be either 2 or 3. If no version parameter is specified then the default is assumed to be 2. The maxdecimaldigits argument may be used to reduce the maximum number of decimal places used in output (defaults to 15).

[Warning]

Using the maxdecimaldigits parameter can cause output geometry to become invalid. To avoid this use ST_ReducePrecision with a suitable gridsize first.

GML 2 refer to 2.1.2 version, GML 3 to 3.1.1 version

The 'options' argument is a bitfield. It could be used to define CRS output type in GML output, and to declare data as lat/lon:

  • 0: GML Short CRS (e.g EPSG:4326), default value

  • 1: GML Long CRS (e.g urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326)

  • 2: For GML 3 only, remove srsDimension attribute from output.

  • 4: For GML 3 only, use <LineString> rather than <Curve> tag for lines.

  • 16: Declare that datas are lat/lon (e.g srid=4326). Default is to assume that data are planars. This option is useful for GML 3.1.1 output only, related to axis order. So if you set it, it will swap the coordinates so order is lat lon instead of database lon lat.

  • 32: Output the box of the geometry (envelope).

The 'namespace prefix' argument may be used to specify a custom namespace prefix or no prefix (if empty). If null or omitted 'gml' prefix is used

Availability: 1.3.2

Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced.

Enhanced: 2.0.0 prefix support was introduced. Option 4 for GML3 was introduced to allow using LineString instead of Curve tag for lines. GML3 Support for Polyhedral surfaces and TINS was introduced. Option 32 was introduced to output the box.

Changed: 2.0.0 use default named args

Enhanced: 2.1.0 id support was introduced, for GML 3.

[Note]

Only version 3+ of ST_AsGML supports Polyhedral Surfaces and TINS.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Examples: Version 2

SELECT ST_AsGML(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326));
                st_asgml
                --------
                <gml:Polygon srsName="EPSG:4326"
><gml:outerBoundaryIs
><gml:LinearRing
><gml:coordinates
>0,0 0,1 1,1 1,0 0,0</gml:coordinates
></gml:LinearRing
></gml:outerBoundaryIs
></gml:Polygon
>
                        

Examples: Version 3

-- Flip coordinates and output extended EPSG (16 | 1)--
SELECT ST_AsGML(3, ST_GeomFromText('POINT(5.234234233242 6.34534534534)',4326), 5, 17);
                        st_asgml
                        --------
                <gml:Point srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326"><gml:pos>6.34535 5.23423</gml:pos></gml:Point>
                        
-- Output the envelope (32) --
SELECT ST_AsGML(3, ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4, 10 20)',4326), 5, 32);
                st_asgml
                --------
        <gml:Envelope srsName="EPSG:4326">
                <gml:lowerCorner>1 2</gml:lowerCorner>
                <gml:upperCorner>10 20</gml:upperCorner>
        </gml:Envelope>
                        
-- Output the envelope (32) , reverse (lat lon instead of lon lat) (16), long srs (1)= 32 | 16 | 1 = 49 --
SELECT ST_AsGML(3, ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4, 10 20)',4326), 5, 49);
        st_asgml
        --------
<gml:Envelope srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326">
        <gml:lowerCorner>2 1</gml:lowerCorner>
        <gml:upperCorner>20 10</gml:upperCorner>
</gml:Envelope>
                        
-- Polyhedral Example --
SELECT ST_AsGML(3, ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )'));
        st_asgml
        --------
 <gml:PolyhedralSurface>
<gml:polygonPatches>
   <gml:PolygonPatch>
                <gml:exterior>
                          <gml:LinearRing>
                                   <gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0</gml:posList>
                          </gml:LinearRing>
                </gml:exterior>
   </gml:PolygonPatch>
   <gml:PolygonPatch>
                <gml:exterior>
                          <gml:LinearRing>
                                   <gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0</gml:posList>
                          </gml:LinearRing>
                </gml:exterior>
   </gml:PolygonPatch>
   <gml:PolygonPatch>
                <gml:exterior>
                          <gml:LinearRing>
                                   <gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0</gml:posList>
                          </gml:LinearRing>
                </gml:exterior>
   </gml:PolygonPatch>
   <gml:PolygonPatch>
                <gml:exterior>
                          <gml:LinearRing>
                                   <gml:posList srsDimension="3">1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0</gml:posList>
                          </gml:LinearRing>
                </gml:exterior>
   </gml:PolygonPatch>
   <gml:PolygonPatch>
                <gml:exterior>
                          <gml:LinearRing>
                                   <gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0</gml:posList>
                          </gml:LinearRing>
                </gml:exterior>
   </gml:PolygonPatch>
   <gml:PolygonPatch>
                <gml:exterior>
                          <gml:LinearRing>
                                   <gml:posList srsDimension="3">0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1</gml:posList>
                          </gml:LinearRing>
                </gml:exterior>
   </gml:PolygonPatch>
</gml:polygonPatches>
</gml:PolyhedralSurface>
                        

Voir aussi

ST_GeomFromGML


Name

ST_AsKML — Return the geometry as a KML element.

Synopsis

text ST_AsKML(geometry geom, integer maxdecimaldigits=15, text nprefix=NULL);

text ST_AsKML(geography geog, integer maxdecimaldigits=15, text nprefix=NULL);

Description

Return the geometry as a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) element. default maximum number of decimal places is 15, default namespace is no prefix.

[Warning]

Using the maxdecimaldigits parameter can cause output geometry to become invalid. To avoid this use ST_ReducePrecision with a suitable gridsize first.

[Note]

Requires PostGIS be compiled with Proj support. Use PostGIS_Full_Version to confirm you have proj support compiled in.

[Note]

Availability: 1.2.2 - later variants that include version param came in 1.3.2

[Note]

Enhanced: 2.0.0 - Add prefix namespace, use default and named args

[Note]

Changed: 3.0.0 - Removed the "versioned" variant signature

[Note]

AsKML output will not work with geometries that do not have an SRID

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsKML(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))',4326));

                st_askml
                --------
                <Polygon
><outerBoundaryIs
><LinearRing
><coordinates
>0,0 0,1 1,1 1,0 0,0</coordinates
></LinearRing
></outerBoundaryIs
></Polygon>

                --3d linestring
                SELECT ST_AsKML('SRID=4326;LINESTRING(1 2 3, 4 5 6)');
                <LineString
><coordinates
>1,2,3 4,5,6</coordinates
></LineString>
                
                

Voir aussi

ST_AsSVG, ST_AsGML


Name

ST_AsLatLonText — Return the Degrees, Minutes, Seconds representation of the given point.

Synopsis

text ST_AsLatLonText(geometry pt, text format='');

Description

Returns the Degrees, Minutes, Seconds representation of the point.

[Note]

It is assumed the point is in a lat/lon projection. The X (lon) and Y (lat) coordinates are normalized in the output to the "normal" range (-180 to +180 for lon, -90 to +90 for lat).

The text parameter is a format string containing the format for the resulting text, similar to a date format string. Valid tokens are "D" for degrees, "M" for minutes, "S" for seconds, and "C" for cardinal direction (NSEW). DMS tokens may be repeated to indicate desired width and precision ("SSS.SSSS" means " 1.0023").

"M", "S", and "C" are optional. If "C" is omitted, degrees are shown with a "-" sign if south or west. If "S" is omitted, minutes will be shown as decimal with as many digits of precision as you specify. If "M" is also omitted, degrees are shown as decimal with as many digits precision as you specify.

If the format string is omitted (or zero-length) a default format will be used.

Availability: 2.0

Exemples

Default format.

SELECT (ST_AsLatLonText('POINT (-3.2342342 -2.32498)'));
      st_aslatlontext
----------------------------
 2°19'29.928"S 3°14'3.243"W

Providing a format (same as the default).

SELECT (ST_AsLatLonText('POINT (-3.2342342 -2.32498)', 'D°M''S.SSS"C'));
      st_aslatlontext
----------------------------
 2°19'29.928"S 3°14'3.243"W

Characters other than D, M, S, C and . are just passed through.

SELECT (ST_AsLatLonText('POINT (-3.2342342 -2.32498)', 'D degrees, M minutes, S seconds to the C'));
                                   st_aslatlontext
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 2 degrees, 19 minutes, 30 seconds to the S 3 degrees, 14 minutes, 3 seconds to the W

Signed degrees instead of cardinal directions.

SELECT (ST_AsLatLonText('POINT (-3.2342342 -2.32498)', 'D°M''S.SSS"'));
      st_aslatlontext
----------------------------
 -2°19'29.928" -3°14'3.243"

Decimal degrees.

SELECT (ST_AsLatLonText('POINT (-3.2342342 -2.32498)', 'D.DDDD degrees C'));
          st_aslatlontext
-----------------------------------
 2.3250 degrees S 3.2342 degrees W

Excessively large values are normalized.

SELECT (ST_AsLatLonText('POINT (-302.2342342 -792.32498)'));
        st_aslatlontext
-------------------------------
 72°19'29.928"S 57°45'56.757"E

Name

ST_AsMVTGeom — Transform a geometry into the coordinate space of a Mapbox Vector Tile.

Synopsis

geometry ST_AsMVTGeom(geometry geom, box2d bounds, integer extent=4096, integer buffer=256, boolean clip_geom=true);

Description

Transform a geometry into the coordinate space of a Mapbox Vector Tile of a set of rows corresponding to a Layer. Makes best effort to keep and even correct validity and might collapse geometry into a lower dimension in the process.

geom is the geometry to transform.

bounds is the geometric bounds of the tile contents without buffer.

extent is the tile extent in tile coordinate space as defined by the specification. If NULL it will default to 4096.

buffer is the buffer distance in tile coordinate space to optionally clip geometries. If NULL it will default to 256.

clip_geom is a boolean to control if geometries should be clipped or encoded as is. If NULL it will default to true.

Availability: 2.4.0

[Note]

From 3.0, Wagyu can be chosen at configure time to clip and validate MVT polygons. This library is faster and produces more correct results than the GEOS default, but it might drop small polygons.

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_AsMVTGeom(
        ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON ((0 0, 10 0, 10 5, 0 -5, 0 0))'),
        ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0, 0), ST_Point(4096, 4096)),
        4096, 0, false));
                              st_astext
--------------------------------------------------------------------
 MULTIPOLYGON(((5 4096,10 4091,10 4096,5 4096)),((5 4096,0 4101,0 4096,5 4096)))

                
                

Name

ST_AsMVT — Aggregate function returning a Mapbox Vector Tile representation of a set of rows.

Synopsis

bytea ST_AsMVT(anyelement set row);

bytea ST_AsMVT(anyelement row, text name);

bytea ST_AsMVT(anyelement row, text name, integer extent);

bytea ST_AsMVT(anyelement row, text name, integer extent, text geom_name);

bytea ST_AsMVT(anyelement row, text name, integer extent, text geom_name, text feature_id_name);

Description

An aggregate function which returns a binary Mapbox Vector Tile representation of a set of rows corresponding to a tile layer. The rows should contain a geometry column which will be encoded as a feature geometry. The geometry should be in tile coordinate space and valid as per the MVT specification. ST_AsMVTGeom can be used to transform geometry into tile coordinate space. Other row columns are encoded as feature attributes.

The Mapbox Vector Tile format can store features with varying sets of attributes. To use this capability supply a JSONB column in the row data containing Json objects one level deep. The keys and values in the JSONB values will be encoded as feature attributes.

Tiles with multiple layers can be created by concatenating multiple calls to this function using || or STRING_AGG.

[Important]

Do not call with a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION as an element in the row. However you can use ST_AsMVTGeom to prepare a geometry collection for inclusion.

row row data with at least a geometry column.

name is the name of the layer. Default is the string "default".

extent is the tile extent in screen space as defined by the specification. Default is 4096.

geom_name is the name of the geometry column in the row data. Default is the first geometry column. Note that PostgreSQL by default automatically folds unquoted identifiers to lower case, which means that unless the geometry column is quoted, e.g. "MyMVTGeom", this parameter must be provided as lowercase.

feature_id_name is the name of the Feature ID column in the row data. If NULL or negative the Feature ID is not set. The first column matching name and valid type (smallint, integer, bigint) will be used as Feature ID, and any subsequent column will be added as a property. JSON properties are not supported.

Enhanced: 3.0 - added support for Feature ID.

Enhanced: 2.5.0 - added support parallel query.

Availability: 2.4.0

Exemples

WITH mvtgeom AS
(
  SELECT ST_AsMVTGeom(geom, ST_TileEnvelope(12, 513, 412), extent => 4096, buffer => 64) AS geom, name, description
  FROM points_of_interest
  WHERE geom && ST_TileEnvelope(12, 513, 412, margin => (64.0 / 4096))
)
SELECT ST_AsMVT(mvtgeom.*)
FROM mvtgeom;

Name

ST_AsSVG — Returns SVG path data for a geometry.

Synopsis

text ST_AsSVG(geometry geom, integer rel=0, integer maxdecimaldigits=15);

text ST_AsSVG(geography geog, integer rel=0, integer maxdecimaldigits=15);

Description

Return the geometry as Scalar Vector Graphics (SVG) path data. Use 1 as second argument to have the path data implemented in terms of relative moves, the default (or 0) uses absolute moves. Third argument may be used to reduce the maximum number of decimal digits used in output (defaults to 15). Point geometries will be rendered as cx/cy when 'rel' arg is 0, x/y when 'rel' is 1. Multipoint geometries are delimited by commas (","), GeometryCollection geometries are delimited by semicolons (";").

[Note]

Availability: 1.2.2. Availability: 1.4.0 Changed in PostGIS 1.4.0 to include L command in absolute path to conform to http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/paths.html#PathDataBNF

Changed: 2.0.0 to use default args and support named args

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsSVG('POLYGON((0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0))');

                st_assvg
                --------
                M 0 0 L 0 -1 1 -1 1 0 Z

Name

ST_AsTWKB — Returns the geometry as TWKB, aka "Tiny Well-Known Binary"

Synopsis

bytea ST_AsTWKB(geometry g1, integer decimaldigits_xy=0, integer decimaldigits_z=0, integer decimaldigits_m=0, boolean include_sizes=false, boolean include_bounding boxes=false);

bytea ST_AsTWKB(geometry[] geometries, bigint[] unique_ids, integer decimaldigits_xy=0, integer decimaldigits_z=0, integer decimaldigits_m=0, boolean include_sizes=false, boolean include_bounding_boxes=false);

Description

Returns the geometry in TWKB (Tiny Well-Known Binary) format. TWKB is a compressed binary format with a focus on minimizing the size of the output.

The decimal digits parameters control how much precision is stored in the output. By default, values are rounded to the nearest unit before encoding. If you want to transfer more precision, increase the number. For example, a value of 1 implies that the first digit to the right of the decimal point will be preserved.

The sizes and bounding boxes parameters control whether optional information about the encoded length of the object and the bounds of the object are included in the output. By default they are not. Do not turn them on unless your client software has a use for them, as they just use up space (and saving space is the point of TWKB).

The array-input form of the function is used to convert a collection of geometries and unique identifiers into a TWKB collection that preserves the identifiers. This is useful for clients that expect to unpack a collection and then access further information about the objects inside. You can create the arrays using the array_agg function. The other parameters operate the same as for the simple form of the function.

[Note]

The format specification is available online at https://github.com/TWKB/Specification, and code for building a JavaScript client can be found at https://github.com/TWKB/twkb.js.

Enhanced: 2.4.0 memory and speed improvements.

Disponibilité : 2.2.0

Exemples

SELECT ST_AsTWKB('LINESTRING(1 1,5 5)'::geometry);
                 st_astwkb
--------------------------------------------
\x02000202020808

To create an aggregate TWKB object including identifiers aggregate the desired geometries and objects first, using "array_agg()", then call the appropriate TWKB function.

SELECT ST_AsTWKB(array_agg(geom), array_agg(gid)) FROM mytable;
                 st_astwkb
--------------------------------------------
\x040402020400000202

Name

ST_AsX3D — Returns a Geometry in X3D xml node element format: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML

Synopsis

text ST_AsX3D(geometry g1, integer maxdecimaldigits=15, integer options=0);

Description

Returns a geometry as an X3D xml formatted node element http://www.web3d.org/standards/number/19776-1. If maxdecimaldigits (precision) is not specified then defaults to 15.

[Note]

There are various options for translating PostGIS geometries to X3D since X3D geometry types don't map directly to PostGIS geometry types and some newer X3D types that might be better mappings we have avoided since most rendering tools don't currently support them. These are the mappings we have settled on. Feel free to post a bug ticket if you have thoughts on the idea or ways we can allow people to denote their preferred mappings.

Below is how we currently map PostGIS 2D/3D types to X3D types

The 'options' argument is a bitfield. For PostGIS 2.2+, this is used to denote whether to represent coordinates with X3D GeoCoordinates Geospatial node and also whether to flip the x/y axis. By default, ST_AsX3D outputs in database form (long,lat or X,Y), but X3D default of lat/lon, y/x may be preferred.

  • 0: X/Y in database order (e.g. long/lat = X,Y is standard database order), default value, and non-spatial coordinates (just regular old Coordinate tag).

  • 1: Flip X and Y. If used in conjunction with the GeoCoordinate option switch, then output will be default "latitude_first" and coordinates will be flipped as well.

  • 2: Output coordinates in GeoSpatial GeoCoordinates. This option will throw an error if geometries are not in WGS 84 long lat (srid: 4326). This is currently the only GeoCoordinate type supported. Refer to X3D specs specifying a spatial reference system.. Default output will be GeoCoordinate geoSystem='"GD" "WE" "longitude_first"'. If you prefer the X3D default of GeoCoordinate geoSystem='"GD" "WE" "latitude_first"' use (2 + 1) = 3

PostGIS Type2D X3D Type3D X3D Type
LINESTRINGnot yet implemented - will be PolyLine2DLineSet
MULTILINESTRINGnot yet implemented - will be PolyLine2DIndexedLineSet
MULTIPOINTPolypoint2DPointSet
POINToutputs the space delimited coordinatesoutputs the space delimited coordinates
(MULTI) POLYGON, POLYHEDRALSURFACEInvalid X3D markupIndexedFaceSet (inner rings currently output as another faceset)
TINTriangleSet2D (Not Yet Implemented)IndexedTriangleSet
[Note]

2D geometry support not yet complete. Inner rings currently just drawn as separate polygons. We are working on these.

Lots of advancements happening in 3D space particularly with X3D Integration with HTML5

There is also a nice open source X3D viewer you can use to view rendered geometries. Free Wrl http://freewrl.sourceforge.net/ binaries available for Mac, Linux, and Windows. Use the FreeWRL_Launcher packaged to view the geometries.

Also check out PostGIS minimalist X3D viewer that utilizes this function and x3dDom html/js open source toolkit.

Availability: 2.0.0: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML

Enhanced: 2.2.0: Support for GeoCoordinates and axis (x/y, long/lat) flipping. Look at options for details.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Example: Create a fully functional X3D document - This will generate a cube that is viewable in FreeWrl and other X3D viewers.

SELECT '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE X3D PUBLIC "ISO//Web3D//DTD X3D 3.0//EN" "http://www.web3d.org/specifications/x3d-3.0.dtd">
<X3D>
  <Scene>
    <Transform>
      <Shape>
       <Appearance>
            <Material emissiveColor=''0 0 1''/>
       </Appearance> ' ||
       ST_AsX3D( ST_GeomFromEWKT('POLYHEDRALSURFACE( ((0 0 0, 0 0 1, 0 1 1, 0 1 0, 0 0 0)),
((0 0 0, 0 1 0, 1 1 0, 1 0 0, 0 0 0)), ((0 0 0, 1 0 0, 1 0 1, 0 0 1, 0 0 0)),
((1 1 0, 1 1 1, 1 0 1, 1 0 0, 1 1 0)),
((0 1 0, 0 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 0, 0 1 0)), ((0 0 1, 1 0 1, 1 1 1, 0 1 1, 0 0 1)) )')) ||
      '</Shape>
    </Transform>
  </Scene>
</X3D>' As x3ddoc;

                x3ddoc
                --------
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE X3D PUBLIC "ISO//Web3D//DTD X3D 3.0//EN" "http://www.web3d.org/specifications/x3d-3.0.dtd">
<X3D>
  <Scene>
    <Transform>
      <Shape>
       <Appearance>
            <Material emissiveColor='0 0 1'/>
       </Appearance>
       <IndexedFaceSet  coordIndex='0 1 2 3 -1 4 5 6 7 -1 8 9 10 11 -1 12 13 14 15 -1 16 17 18 19 -1 20 21 22 23'>
            <Coordinate point='0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1' />
      </IndexedFaceSet>
      </Shape>
    </Transform>
  </Scene>
</X3D>

PostGIS buildings

Copy and paste the output of this query to x3d scene viewer and click Show

SELECT string_agg('<Shape>' || ST_AsX3D(ST_Extrude(geom, 0,0, i*0.5)) ||
    '<Appearance>
          <Material diffuseColor="' || (0.01*i)::text || ' 0.8 0.2" specularColor="' || (0.05*i)::text || ' 0 0.5"/>
        </Appearance>
    </Shape>', '')
FROM ST_Subdivide(ST_Letters('PostGIS'),20) WITH ORDINALITY AS f(geom,i);

Buildings formed by subdividing PostGIS and extrusion

Example: An Octagon elevated 3 Units and decimal precision of 6

SELECT ST_AsX3D(
ST_Translate(
    ST_Force_3d(
        ST_Buffer(ST_Point(10,10),5, 'quad_segs=2')), 0,0,
    3)
  ,6) As x3dfrag;

x3dfrag
--------
<IndexedFaceSet coordIndex="0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7">
    <Coordinate point="15 10 3 13.535534 6.464466 3 10 5 3 6.464466 6.464466 3 5 10 3 6.464466 13.535534 3 10 15 3 13.535534 13.535534 3 " />
</IndexedFaceSet>

Example: TIN

SELECT ST_AsX3D(ST_GeomFromEWKT('TIN (((
                0 0 0,
                0 0 1,
                0 1 0,
                0 0 0
            )), ((
                0 0 0,
                0 1 0,
                1 1 0,
                0 0 0
            ))
            )')) As x3dfrag;

                x3dfrag
                --------
<IndexedTriangleSet  index='0 1 2 3 4 5'><Coordinate point='0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0'/></IndexedTriangleSet>

Example: Closed multilinestring (the boundary of a polygon with holes)

SELECT ST_AsX3D(
                    ST_GeomFromEWKT('MULTILINESTRING((20 0 10,16 -12 10,0 -16 10,-12 -12 10,-20 0 10,-12 16 10,0 24 10,16 16 10,20 0 10),
  (12 0 10,8 8 10,0 12 10,-8 8 10,-8 0 10,-8 -4 10,0 -8 10,8 -4 10,12 0 10))')
) As x3dfrag;

                x3dfrag
                --------
<IndexedLineSet  coordIndex='0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 -1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 8'>
    <Coordinate point='20 0 10 16 -12 10 0 -16 10 -12 -12 10 -20 0 10 -12 16 10 0 24 10 16 16 10 12 0 10 8 8 10 0 12 10 -8 8 10 -8 0 10 -8 -4 10 0 -8 10 8 -4 10 ' />
 </IndexedLineSet>

Name

ST_GeoHash — Return a GeoHash representation of the geometry.

Synopsis

text ST_GeoHash(geometry geom, integer maxchars=full_precision_of_point);

Description

Return a GeoHash representation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geohash) of the geometry. A GeoHash encodes a point into a text form that is sortable and searchable based on prefixing. A shorter GeoHash is a less precise representation of a point. It can also be thought of as a box, that contains the actual point.

If no maxchars is specified ST_GeoHash returns a GeoHash based on full precision of the input geometry type. Points return a GeoHash with 20 characters of precision (about enough to hold the full double precision of the input). Other types return a GeoHash with a variable amount of precision, based on the size of the feature. Larger features are represented with less precision, smaller features with more precision. The idea is that the box implied by the GeoHash will always contain the input feature.

If maxchars is specified ST_GeoHash returns a GeoHash with at most that many characters so a possibly lower precision representation of the input geometry. For non-points, the starting point of the calculation is the center of the bounding box of the geometry.

Disponibilité: 1.4.0

[Note]

ST_GeoHash will not work with geometries that are not in geographic (lon/lat) coordinates.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

Exemples

SELECT ST_GeoHash(ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-126,48),4326));

         st_geohash
----------------------
 c0w3hf1s70w3hf1s70w3

SELECT ST_GeoHash(ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(-126,48),4326),5);

 st_geohash
------------
 c0w3h
                
                

8.10. Opérateurs

8.10.1. Bounding Box Operators

&& — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
&&(geometry,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
&&(box2df,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
&&(box2df,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
&&& — Returns TRUE if A's n-D bounding box intersects B's n-D bounding box.
&&&(geometry,gidx) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
&&&(gidx,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
&&&(gidx,gidx) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
&< — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is to the left of B's.
&<| — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is below B's.
&> — Returns TRUE if A' bounding box overlaps or is to the right of B's.
<< — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly to the left of B's.
<<| — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly below B's.
= — Returns TRUE if the coordinates and coordinate order geometry/geography A are the same as the coordinates and coordinate order of geometry/geography B.
>> — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly to the right of B's.
@ — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is contained by B's.
@(geometry,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
@(box2df,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
@(box2df,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
|&> — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is above B's.
|>> — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly above B's.
~ — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box contains B's.
~(geometry,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
~(box2df,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
~(box2df,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.
~= — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is the same as B's.

Name

&& — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

booléen &&( geometry A , geometry B );

booléen &&( geography A , geography B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Amélioration: la version 2.0.0 introduit le support des surfaces Polyédrique.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 && tbl2.column2 AS overlaps
FROM ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING(0 0, 3 3)'::geometry),
        (2, 'LINESTRING(0 1, 0 5)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
( VALUES
        (3, 'LINESTRING(1 2, 4 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | overlaps
---------+---------+----------
           1 |       3 | t
           2 |       3 | f
(2 rows)

Voir aussi

ST_Intersects, ST_Extent, |&>, &>, &<|, &<, ~, @


Name

&&(geometry,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean &&( geometry A , box2df B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_Point(1,1) && ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(2,2)) AS overlaps;

 overlaps
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

&&(box2df,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean &&( box2df A , geometry B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(2,2)) && ST_Point(1,1) AS overlaps;

 overlaps
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

&&(box2df,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean &&( box2df A , box2df B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operator is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(2,2)) && ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(1,1), ST_Point(3,3)) AS overlaps;

 overlaps
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

&&& — Returns TRUE if A's n-D bounding box intersects B's n-D bounding box.

Synopsis

boolean &&&( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The &&& operator returns TRUE if the n-D bounding box of geometry A intersects the n-D bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Disponibilité : Version 2.0.0

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Examples: 3D LineStrings

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 &&& tbl2.column2 AS overlaps_3d,
                                    tbl1.column2 && tbl2.column2 AS overlaps_2d
FROM ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING Z(0 0 1, 3 3 2)'::geometry),
        (2, 'LINESTRING Z(1 2 0, 0 5 -1)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
( VALUES
        (3, 'LINESTRING Z(1 2 1, 4 6 1)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | overlaps_3d | overlaps_2d
---------+---------+-------------+-------------
       1 |       3 | t           | t
       2 |       3 | f           | t

Examples: 3M LineStrings

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 &&& tbl2.column2 AS overlaps_3zm,
                                    tbl1.column2 && tbl2.column2 AS overlaps_2d
FROM ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING M(0 0 1, 3 3 2)'::geometry),
        (2, 'LINESTRING M(1 2 0, 0 5 -1)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
( VALUES
        (3, 'LINESTRING M(1 2 1, 4 6 1)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | overlaps_3zm | overlaps_2d
---------+---------+-------------+-------------
       1 |       3 | t           | t
       2 |       3 | f           | t

Voir aussi

&&


Name

&&&(geometry,gidx) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean &&&( geometry A , gidx B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operator is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_MakePoint(1,1,1) &&& ST_3DMakeBox(ST_MakePoint(0,0,0), ST_MakePoint(2,2,2)) AS overlaps;

 overlaps
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

&&&(gidx,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean &&&( gidx A , geometry B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operator is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_3DMakeBox(ST_MakePoint(0,0,0), ST_MakePoint(2,2,2)) &&& ST_MakePoint(1,1,1) AS overlaps;

 overlaps
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

&&&(gidx,gidx) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean &&&( gidx A , gidx B );

Description

The &&& operator returns TRUE if two n-D bounding boxes A and B intersect each other, using float precision. This means that if A (or B) is a (double precision) box3d, it will be internally converted to a float precision 3D bounding box (GIDX)

[Note]

This operator is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

Exemples

SELECT ST_3DMakeBox(ST_MakePoint(0,0,0), ST_MakePoint(2,2,2)) &&& ST_3DMakeBox(ST_MakePoint(1,1,1), ST_MakePoint(3,3,3)) AS overlaps;

 overlaps
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

&< — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is to the left of B's.

Synopsis

boolean &<( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The &< operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A overlaps or is to the left of the bounding box of geometry B, or more accurately, overlaps or is NOT to the right of the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 &< tbl2.column2 AS overleft
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING(1 2, 4 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING(0 0, 3 3)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING(0 1, 0 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING(6 0, 6 1)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | overleft
---------+---------+----------
           1 |       2 | f
           1 |       3 | f
           1 |       4 | t
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

&&, |&>, &>, &<|


Name

&<| — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is below B's.

Synopsis

boolean &<|( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The &<| operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A overlaps or is below of the bounding box of geometry B, or more accurately, overlaps or is NOT above the bounding box of geometry B.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 &<| tbl2.column2 AS overbelow
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING(6 0, 6 4)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING(0 0, 3 3)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING(0 1, 0 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING(1 2, 4 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | overbelow
---------+---------+-----------
           1 |       2 | f
           1 |       3 | t
           1 |       4 | t
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

&&, |&>, &>, &<


Name

&> — Returns TRUE if A' bounding box overlaps or is to the right of B's.

Synopsis

boolean &>( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The &> operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A overlaps or is to the right of the bounding box of geometry B, or more accurately, overlaps or is NOT to the left of the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 &> tbl2.column2 AS overright
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING(1 2, 4 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING(0 0, 3 3)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING(0 1, 0 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING(6 0, 6 1)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | overright
---------+---------+-----------
           1 |       2 | t
           1 |       3 | t
           1 |       4 | f
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

&&, |&>, &<|, &<


Name

<< — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly to the left of B's.

Synopsis

boolean <<( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The << operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A is strictly to the left of the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 << tbl2.column2 AS left
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING (1 2, 1 5)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 4 3)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING (6 0, 6 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING (2 2, 5 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | left
---------+---------+------
           1 |       2 | f
           1 |       3 | t
           1 |       4 | t
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

>>, |>>, <<|


Name

<<| — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly below B's.

Synopsis

boolean <<|( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The <<| operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A is strictly below the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 <<| tbl2.column2 AS below
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 4 3)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING (1 4, 1 7)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING (6 1, 6 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING (2 3, 5 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | below
---------+---------+-------
           1 |       2 | t
           1 |       3 | f
           1 |       4 | f
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

<<, >>, |>>


Name

= — Returns TRUE if the coordinates and coordinate order geometry/geography A are the same as the coordinates and coordinate order of geometry/geography B.

Synopsis

boolean =( geometry A , geometry B );

boolean =( geography A , geography B );

Description

The = operator returns TRUE if the coordinates and coordinate order geometry/geography A are the same as the coordinates and coordinate order of geometry/geography B. PostgreSQL uses the =, <, and > operators defined for geometries to perform internal orderings and comparison of geometries (ie. in a GROUP BY or ORDER BY clause).

[Note]

Only geometry/geography that are exactly equal in all respects, with the same coordinates, in the same order, are considered equal by this operator. For "spatial equality", that ignores things like coordinate order, and can detect features that cover the same spatial area with different representations, use ST_OrderingEquals or ST_Equals

[Caution]

This operand will NOT make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries. For an index assisted exact equality test, combine = with &&.

Changed: 2.4.0, in prior versions this was bounding box equality not a geometric equality. If you need bounding box equality, use ~= instead.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT 'LINESTRING(0 0, 0 1, 1 0)'::geometry = 'LINESTRING(1 1, 0 0)'::geometry;
 ?column?
----------
 f
(1 row)

SELECT ST_AsText(column1)
FROM ( VALUES
        ('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)'::geometry),
        ('LINESTRING(1 1, 0 0)'::geometry)) AS foo;
          st_astext
---------------------
 LINESTRING(0 0,1 1)
 LINESTRING(1 1,0 0)
(2 rows)

-- Note: the GROUP BY uses the "=" to compare for geometry equivalency.
SELECT ST_AsText(column1)
FROM ( VALUES
        ('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)'::geometry),
        ('LINESTRING(1 1, 0 0)'::geometry)) AS foo
GROUP BY column1;
      st_astext
---------------------
 LINESTRING(0 0,1 1)
 LINESTRING(1 1,0 0)
(2 rows)

-- In versions prior to 2.0, this used to return true --
 SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1707296.37 4820536.77)') =
        ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1707296.27 4820536.87)') As pt_intersect;

--pt_intersect --
f

Name

>> — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly to the right of B's.

Synopsis

boolean >>( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The >> operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A is strictly to the right of the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 >> tbl2.column2 AS right
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING (2 3, 5 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING (1 4, 1 7)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING (6 1, 6 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 4 3)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | right
---------+---------+-------
           1 |       2 | t
           1 |       3 | f
           1 |       4 | f
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

<<, |>>, <<|


Name

@ — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is contained by B's.

Synopsis

boolean @( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The @ operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A is completely contained by the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 @ tbl2.column2 AS contained
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING (1 1, 3 3)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 4 4)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING (2 2, 4 4)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING (1 1, 3 3)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | contained
---------+---------+-----------
           1 |       2 | t
           1 |       3 | f
           1 |       4 | t
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

~, &&


Name

@(geometry,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean @( geometry A , box2df B );

Description

The @ operator returns TRUE if the A geometry's 2D bounding box is contained the 2D bounding box B, using float precision. This means that if B is a (double precision) box2d, it will be internally converted to a float precision 2D bounding box (BOX2DF)

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(2 2)'), 1) @ ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(5,5)) AS is_contained;

 is_contained
--------------
 t
(1 row)

Name

@(box2df,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean @( box2df A , geometry B );

Description

The @ operator returns TRUE if the 2D bounding box A is contained into the B geometry's 2D bounding box, using float precision. This means that if B is a (double precision) box2d, it will be internally converted to a float precision 2D bounding box (BOX2DF)

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(2,2), ST_Point(3,3)) @ ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)'), 10) AS is_contained;

 is_contained
--------------
 t
(1 row)

Name

@(box2df,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean @( box2df A , box2df B );

Description

The @ operator returns TRUE if the 2D bounding box A is contained into the 2D bounding box B, using float precision. This means that if A (or B) is a (double precision) box2d, it will be internally converted to a float precision 2D bounding box (BOX2DF)

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(2,2), ST_Point(3,3)) @ ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(5,5)) AS is_contained;

 is_contained
--------------
 t
(1 row)

Name

|&> — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is above B's.

Synopsis

boolean |&>( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The |&> operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A overlaps or is above the bounding box of geometry B, or more accurately, overlaps or is NOT below the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 |&> tbl2.column2 AS overabove
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING(6 0, 6 4)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING(0 0, 3 3)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING(0 1, 0 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING(1 2, 4 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | overabove
---------+---------+-----------
           1 |       2 | t
           1 |       3 | f
           1 |       4 | f
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

&&, &>, &<|, &<


Name

|>> — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is strictly above B's.

Synopsis

boolean |>>( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 |>> tbl2.column2 AS above
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING (1 4, 1 7)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 4 2)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING (6 1, 6 5)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING (2 3, 5 6)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | above
---------+---------+-------
           1 |       2 | t
           1 |       3 | f
           1 |       4 | f
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

<<, >>, <<|


Name

~ — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box contains B's.

Synopsis

boolean ~( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The ~ operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry A completely contains the bounding box of geometry B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Exemples

SELECT tbl1.column1, tbl2.column1, tbl1.column2 ~ tbl2.column2 AS contains
FROM
  ( VALUES
        (1, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 3 3)'::geometry)) AS tbl1,
  ( VALUES
        (2, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 4 4)'::geometry),
        (3, 'LINESTRING (1 1, 2 2)'::geometry),
        (4, 'LINESTRING (0 0, 3 3)'::geometry)) AS tbl2;

 column1 | column1 | contains
---------+---------+----------
           1 |       2 | f
           1 |       3 | t
           1 |       4 | t
(3 rows)

Voir aussi

@, &&


Name

~(geometry,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean ~( geometry A , box2df B );

Description

L'opérateur && renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de la géométrie B.

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)'), 10) ~ ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(2,2)) AS contains;

 contains
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

~(box2df,geometry) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean ~( box2df A , geometry B );

Description

The ~ operator returns TRUE if the 2D bounding box A contains the B geometry's bounding box, using float precision. This means that if A is a (double precision) box2d, it will be internally converted to a float precision 2D bounding box (BOX2DF)

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(5,5)) ~ ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(2 2)'), 1) AS contains;

 contains
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

~(box2df,box2df) — Renvoi VRAI si la boite englobante 2D de A intersecte la boite englobante 2D de B.

Synopsis

boolean ~( box2df A , box2df B );

Description

The ~ operator returns TRUE if the 2D bounding box A contains the 2D bounding box B, using float precision. This means that if A is a (double precision) box2d, it will be internally converted to a float precision 2D bounding box (BOX2DF)

[Note]

This operand is intended to be used internally by BRIN indexes, more than by users.

Disponibilité: La version 1.5.0 introduit le support des géographie.

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Exemples

SELECT ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(0,0), ST_Point(5,5)) ~ ST_MakeBox2D(ST_Point(2,2), ST_Point(3,3)) AS contains;

 contains
----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

~= — Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is the same as B's.

Synopsis

boolean ~=( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The ~= operator returns TRUE if the bounding box of geometry/geography A is the same as the bounding box of geometry/geography B.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries.

Availability: 1.5.0 changed behavior

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

[Warning]

This operator has changed behavior in PostGIS 1.5 from testing for actual geometric equality to only checking for bounding box equality. To complicate things it also depends on if you have done a hard or soft upgrade which behavior your database has. To find out which behavior your database has you can run the query below. To check for true equality use ST_OrderingEquals or ST_Equals.

Exemples

select 'LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1)'::geometry ~= 'LINESTRING(0 1, 1 0)'::geometry as equality;
 equality   |
-----------------+
          t    |
                        

8.10.2. Opérateurs

<-> — Returns the 2D distance between A and B.
|=| — Returns the distance between A and B trajectories at their closest point of approach.
<#> — Returns the 2D distance between A and B bounding boxes.
<<->> — Returns the n-D distance between the centroids of A and B bounding boxes.
<<#>> — Returns the n-D distance between A and B bounding boxes.

Name

<-> — Returns the 2D distance between A and B.

Synopsis

double precision <->( geometry A , geometry B );

double precision <->( geography A , geography B );

Description

The <-> operator returns the 2D distance between two geometries. Used in the "ORDER BY" clause provides index-assisted nearest-neighbor result sets. For PostgreSQL below 9.5 only gives centroid distance of bounding boxes and for PostgreSQL 9.5+, does true KNN distance search giving true distance between geometries, and distance sphere for geographies.

[Note]

This operand will make use of 2D GiST indexes that may be available on the geometries. It is different from other operators that use spatial indexes in that the spatial index is only used when the operator is in the ORDER BY clause.

[Note]

Index only kicks in if one of the geometries is a constant (not in a subquery/cte). e.g. 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'::geometry instead of a.geom

Refer to PostGIS workshop: Nearest-Neighbor Searching for a detailed example.

Enhanced: 2.2.0 -- True KNN ("K nearest neighbor") behavior for geometry and geography for PostgreSQL 9.5+. Note for geography KNN is based on sphere rather than spheroid. For PostgreSQL 9.4 and below, geography support is new but only supports centroid box.

Changed: 2.2.0 -- For PostgreSQL 9.5 users, old Hybrid syntax may be slower, so you'll want to get rid of that hack if you are running your code only on PostGIS 2.2+ 9.5+. See examples below.

Availability: 2.0.0 -- Weak KNN provides nearest neighbors based on geometry centroid distances instead of true distances. Exact results for points, inexact for all other types. Available for PostgreSQL 9.1+

Exemples

SELECT ST_Distance(geom, 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'::geometry) as d,edabbr, vaabbr
FROM va2005
ORDER BY d limit 10;

        d         | edabbr | vaabbr
------------------+--------+--------
                0 | ALQ    | 128
 5541.57712511724 | ALQ    | 129A
 5579.67450712005 | ALQ    | 001
  6083.4207708641 | ALQ    | 131
  7691.2205404848 | ALQ    | 003
 7900.75451037313 | ALQ    | 122
 8694.20710669982 | ALQ    | 129B
 9564.24289057111 | ALQ    | 130
  12089.665931705 | ALQ    | 127
 18472.5531479404 | ALQ    | 002
(10 rows)

Then the KNN raw answer:

SELECT st_distance(geom, 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'::geometry) as d,edabbr, vaabbr
FROM va2005
ORDER BY geom <-> 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'::geometry limit 10;

        d         | edabbr | vaabbr
------------------+--------+--------
                0 | ALQ    | 128
 5541.57712511724 | ALQ    | 129A
 5579.67450712005 | ALQ    | 001
  6083.4207708641 | ALQ    | 131
  7691.2205404848 | ALQ    | 003
 7900.75451037313 | ALQ    | 122
 8694.20710669982 | ALQ    | 129B
 9564.24289057111 | ALQ    | 130
  12089.665931705 | ALQ    | 127
 18472.5531479404 | ALQ    | 002
(10 rows)

If you run "EXPLAIN ANALYZE" on the two queries you would see a performance improvement for the second.

For users running with PostgreSQL < 9.5, use a hybrid query to find the true nearest neighbors. First a CTE query using the index-assisted KNN, then an exact query to get correct ordering:

WITH index_query AS (
  SELECT ST_Distance(geom, 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'::geometry) as d,edabbr, vaabbr
        FROM va2005
  ORDER BY geom <-> 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'::geometry LIMIT 100)
  SELECT *
        FROM index_query
  ORDER BY d limit 10;

        d         | edabbr | vaabbr
------------------+--------+--------
                0 | ALQ    | 128
 5541.57712511724 | ALQ    | 129A
 5579.67450712005 | ALQ    | 001
  6083.4207708641 | ALQ    | 131
  7691.2205404848 | ALQ    | 003
 7900.75451037313 | ALQ    | 122
 8694.20710669982 | ALQ    | 129B
 9564.24289057111 | ALQ    | 130
  12089.665931705 | ALQ    | 127
 18472.5531479404 | ALQ    | 002
(10 rows)

                        

Name

|=| — Returns the distance between A and B trajectories at their closest point of approach.

Synopsis

double precision |=|( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The |=| operator returns the 3D distance between two trajectories (See ST_IsValidTrajectory). This is the same as ST_DistanceCPA but as an operator it can be used for doing nearest neighbor searches using an N-dimensional index (requires PostgreSQL 9.5.0 or higher).

[Note]

This operand will make use of ND GiST indexes that may be available on the geometries. It is different from other operators that use spatial indexes in that the spatial index is only used when the operator is in the ORDER BY clause.

[Note]

Index only kicks in if one of the geometries is a constant (not in a subquery/cte). e.g. 'SRID=3005;LINESTRINGM(0 0 0,0 0 1)'::geometry instead of a.geom

Availability: 2.2.0. Index-supported only available for PostgreSQL 9.5+

Exemples

-- Save a literal query trajectory in a psql variable...
\set qt 'ST_AddMeasure(ST_MakeLine(ST_MakePointM(-350,300,0),ST_MakePointM(-410,490,0)),10,20)'
-- Run the query !
SELECT track_id, dist FROM (
  SELECT track_id, ST_DistanceCPA(tr,:qt) dist
  FROM trajectories
  ORDER BY tr |=| :qt
  LIMIT 5
) foo;
 track_id        dist
----------+-------------------
      395 | 0.576496831518066
      380 |  5.06797130410151
      390 |  7.72262293958322
      385 |   9.8004461358071
      405 |  10.9534397988433
(5 rows)

Name

<#> — Returns the 2D distance between A and B bounding boxes.

Synopsis

double precision <#>( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The <#> operator returns distance between two floating point bounding boxes, possibly reading them from a spatial index (PostgreSQL 9.1+ required). Useful for doing nearest neighbor approximate distance ordering.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries. It is different from other operators that use spatial indexes in that the spatial index is only used when the operator is in the ORDER BY clause.

[Note]

Index only kicks in if one of the geometries is a constant e.g. ORDER BY (ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)') <#> geom) instead of g1.geom <#>.

Availability: 2.0.0 -- KNN only available for PostgreSQL 9.1+

Exemples

SELECT *
FROM (
SELECT b.tlid, b.mtfcc,
        b.geom <#> ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(746149 2948672,745954 2948576,
                745787 2948499,745740 2948468,745712 2948438,
                745690 2948384,745677 2948319)',2249) As b_dist,
                ST_Distance(b.geom, ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(746149 2948672,745954 2948576,
                745787 2948499,745740 2948468,745712 2948438,
                745690 2948384,745677 2948319)',2249)) As act_dist
    FROM bos_roads As b
    ORDER BY b_dist, b.tlid
    LIMIT 100) As foo
    ORDER BY act_dist, tlid LIMIT 10;

   tlid    | mtfcc |      b_dist      |     act_dist
-----------+-------+------------------+------------------
  85732027 | S1400 |                0 |                0
  85732029 | S1400 |                0 |                0
  85732031 | S1400 |                0 |                0
  85734335 | S1400 |                0 |                0
  85736037 | S1400 |                0 |                0
 624683742 | S1400 |                0 | 128.528874268666
  85719343 | S1400 | 260.839270432962 | 260.839270432962
  85741826 | S1400 | 164.759294123275 | 260.839270432962
  85732032 | S1400 |           277.75 | 311.830282365264
  85735592 | S1400 |           222.25 | 311.830282365264
(10 rows)

Name

<<->> — Returns the n-D distance between the centroids of A and B bounding boxes.

Synopsis

double precision <<->>( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The <<->> operator returns the n-D (euclidean) distance between the centroids of the bounding boxes of two geometries. Useful for doing nearest neighbor approximate distance ordering.

[Note]

This operand will make use of n-D GiST indexes that may be available on the geometries. It is different from other operators that use spatial indexes in that the spatial index is only used when the operator is in the ORDER BY clause.

[Note]

Index only kicks in if one of the geometries is a constant (not in a subquery/cte). e.g. 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'::geometry instead of a.geom

Availability: 2.2.0 -- KNN only available for PostgreSQL 9.1+

Voir aussi

<<#>>, <->


Name

<<#>> — Returns the n-D distance between A and B bounding boxes.

Synopsis

double precision <<#>>( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

The <<#>> operator returns distance between two floating point bounding boxes, possibly reading them from a spatial index (PostgreSQL 9.1+ required). Useful for doing nearest neighbor approximate distance ordering.

[Note]

This operand will make use of any indexes that may be available on the geometries. It is different from other operators that use spatial indexes in that the spatial index is only used when the operator is in the ORDER BY clause.

[Note]

Index only kicks in if one of the geometries is a constant e.g. ORDER BY (ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)') <<#>> geom) instead of g1.geom <<#>>.

Availability: 2.2.0 -- KNN only available for PostgreSQL 9.1+

Voir aussi

<<->>, <#>

8.11. Spatial Relationships

Abstract

These functions determine spatial relationships between geometries.

8.11.1. Topological Relationships

ST_3DIntersects — Tests if two geometries spatially intersect in 3D - only for points, linestrings, polygons, polyhedral surface (area).
ST_Contains — Tests if no points of B lie in the exterior of A, and A and B have at least one interior point in common.
ST_ContainsProperly — Tests if B intersects the interior of A but not the boundary or exterior.
ST_CoveredBy — Tests if no point in A is outside B
ST_Covers — Tests if no point in B is outside A
ST_Crosses — Tests if two geometries have some, but not all, interior points in common.
ST_Disjoint — Tests if two geometries are disjoint (they have no point in common).
ST_Equals — Tests if two geometries include the same set of points.
ST_Intersects — Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common).
ST_LineCrossingDirection — Returns a number indicating the crossing behavior of two LineStrings.
ST_OrderingEquals — Tests if two geometries represent the same geometry and have points in the same directional order.
ST_Overlaps — Tests if two geometries intersect and have the same dimension, but are not completely contained by each other.
ST_Relate — Tests if two geometries have a topological relationship matching an Intersection Matrix pattern, or computes their Intersection Matrix
ST_RelateMatch — Tests if a DE-9IM Intersection Matrix matches an Intersection Matrix pattern
ST_Touches — Tests if two geometries have at least one point in common, but their interiors do not intersect.
ST_Within — Tests if no points of A lie in the exterior of B, and A and B have at least one interior point in common.

Name

ST_3DIntersects — Tests if two geometries spatially intersect in 3D - only for points, linestrings, polygons, polyhedral surface (area).

Synopsis

boolean ST_3DIntersects( geometry geomA , geometry geomB );

Description

Overlaps, Touches, Within all imply spatial intersection. If any of the aforementioned returns true, then the geometries also spatially intersect. Disjoint implies false for spatial intersection.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries.

Changed: 3.0.0 SFCGAL backend removed, GEOS backend supports TINs.

Availability: 2.0.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: ?

Geometry Examples

SELECT ST_3DIntersects(pt, line), ST_Intersects(pt, line)
  FROM (SELECT 'POINT(0 0 2)'::geometry As pt, 'LINESTRING (0 0 1, 0 2 3)'::geometry As line) As foo;
 st_3dintersects | st_intersects
-----------------+---------------
 f               | t
(1 row)
    

TIN Examples

SELECT ST_3DIntersects('TIN(((0 0 0,1 0 0,0 1 0,0 0 0)))'::geometry, 'POINT(.1 .1 0)'::geometry);
 st_3dintersects
-----------------
 t

Voir aussi

ST_Intersects


Name

ST_Contains — Tests if no points of B lie in the exterior of A, and A and B have at least one interior point in common.

Synopsis

boolean ST_Contains(geometry geomA, geometry geomB);

Description

Returns TRUE if geometry B is completely inside geometry A. A contains B if and only if no points of B lie in the exterior of A, and at least one point of the interior of B lies in the interior of A.

A subtlety of the definition is that a geometry does not contain things in its boundary. Thus polygons and lines do not contain lines and points lying in their boundary. For further details see Subtleties of OGC Covers, Contains, Within. (The ST_Covers predicate provides a more inclusive relationship.) However, a geometry does contain itself. (In contrast, in the ST_ContainsProperly predicate a geometry does not properly contain itself.)

ST_Contains is the inverse of ST_Within. So, ST_Contains(A,B) = ST_Within(B,A).

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries. To avoid index use, use the function _ST_Contains.

Performed by the GEOS module

Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

[Important]

Do not use this function with invalid geometries. You will get unexpected results.

NOTE: this is the "allowable" version that returns a boolean, not an integer.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2 // s2.1.13.3 - same as within(geometry B, geometry A)

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.31

Examples

ST_Contains returns TRUE in the following situations:

LINESTRING / MULTIPOINT

POLYGON / POINT

POLYGON / LINESTRING

POLYGON / POLYGON

The ST_Contains predicate returns FALSE in the following situations:

POLYGON / MULTIPOINT

POLYGON / LINESTRING

-- A circle within a circle
SELECT ST_Contains(smallc, bigc) As smallcontainsbig,
     ST_Contains(bigc,smallc) As bigcontainssmall,
     ST_Contains(bigc, ST_Union(smallc, bigc)) as bigcontainsunion,
     ST_Equals(bigc, ST_Union(smallc, bigc)) as bigisunion,
     ST_Covers(bigc, ST_ExteriorRing(bigc)) As bigcoversexterior,
     ST_Contains(bigc, ST_ExteriorRing(bigc)) As bigcontainsexterior
FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 10) As smallc,
       ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 20) As bigc) As foo;

-- Result
  smallcontainsbig | bigcontainssmall | bigcontainsunion | bigisunion | bigcoversexterior | bigcontainsexterior
------------------+------------------+------------------+------------+-------------------+---------------------
 f                | t                | t                | t          | t        | f

-- Example demonstrating difference between contains and contains properly
SELECT ST_GeometryType(geomA) As geomtype, ST_Contains(geomA,geomA) AS acontainsa, ST_ContainsProperly(geomA, geomA) AS acontainspropa,
   ST_Contains(geomA, ST_Boundary(geomA)) As acontainsba, ST_ContainsProperly(geomA, ST_Boundary(geomA)) As acontainspropba
FROM (VALUES ( ST_Buffer(ST_Point(1,1), 5,1) ),
       ( ST_MakeLine(ST_Point(1,1), ST_Point(-1,-1) ) ),
       ( ST_Point(1,1) )
    ) As foo(geomA);

  geomtype    | acontainsa | acontainspropa | acontainsba | acontainspropba
--------------+------------+----------------+-------------+-----------------
ST_Polygon    | t          | f              | f           | f
ST_LineString | t          | f              | f           | f
ST_Point      | t          | t              | f           | f

 

Name

ST_ContainsProperly — Tests if B intersects the interior of A but not the boundary or exterior.

Synopsis

boolean ST_ContainsProperly(geometry geomA, geometry geomB);

Description

Returns true if B intersects the interior of A but not the boundary or exterior.

A does not properly contain itself, but does contain itself.

Every point of the other geometry is a point of this geometry's interior. The DE-9IM Intersection Matrix for the two geometries matches [T**FF*FF*] used in ST_Relate

An example use case for this predicate is computing the intersections of a set of geometries with a large polygonal geometry. Since intersection is a fairly slow operation, it can be more efficient to use containsProperly to filter out test geometries which lie wholly inside the area. In these cases the intersection is known a priori to be exactly the original test geometry.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries. To avoid index use, use the function _ST_ContainsProperly.

[Note]

The advantage of this predicate over ST_Contains and ST_Intersects is that it can be computed more efficiently, with no need to compute topology at individual points.

Performed by the GEOS module.

Availability: 1.4.0

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

[Important]

Do not use this function with invalid geometries. You will get unexpected results.

Examples

--a circle within a circle
  SELECT ST_ContainsProperly(smallc, bigc) As smallcontainspropbig,
  ST_ContainsProperly(bigc,smallc) As bigcontainspropsmall,
  ST_ContainsProperly(bigc, ST_Union(smallc, bigc)) as bigcontainspropunion,
  ST_Equals(bigc, ST_Union(smallc, bigc)) as bigisunion,
  ST_Covers(bigc, ST_ExteriorRing(bigc)) As bigcoversexterior,
  ST_ContainsProperly(bigc, ST_ExteriorRing(bigc)) As bigcontainsexterior
  FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 10) As smallc,
  ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 20) As bigc) As foo;
  --Result
  smallcontainspropbig | bigcontainspropsmall | bigcontainspropunion | bigisunion | bigcoversexterior | bigcontainsexterior
------------------+------------------+------------------+------------+-------------------+---------------------
 f                     | t                    | f                    | t          | t                 | f

 --example demonstrating difference between contains and contains properly
 SELECT ST_GeometryType(geomA) As geomtype, ST_Contains(geomA,geomA) AS acontainsa, ST_ContainsProperly(geomA, geomA) AS acontainspropa,
 ST_Contains(geomA, ST_Boundary(geomA)) As acontainsba, ST_ContainsProperly(geomA, ST_Boundary(geomA)) As acontainspropba
 FROM (VALUES ( ST_Buffer(ST_Point(1,1), 5,1) ),
      ( ST_MakeLine(ST_Point(1,1), ST_Point(-1,-1) ) ),
      ( ST_Point(1,1) )
  ) As foo(geomA);

  geomtype    | acontainsa | acontainspropa | acontainsba | acontainspropba
--------------+------------+----------------+-------------+-----------------
ST_Polygon    | t          | f              | f           | f
ST_LineString | t          | f              | f           | f
ST_Point      | t          | t              | f           | f
 

Name

ST_CoveredBy — Tests if no point in A is outside B

Synopsis

boolean ST_CoveredBy(geometry geomA, geometry geomB);

boolean ST_CoveredBy(geography geogA, geography geogB);

Description

Returns true if no point in Geometry/Geography A lies outside Geometry/Geography B. Equivalently, tests if every point of geometry A is inside (i.e. intersects the interior or boundary of) geometry B.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries. To avoid index use, use the function _ST_CoveredBy.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

[Important]

Do not use this function with invalid geometries. You will get unexpected results.

Performed by the GEOS module

Availability: 1.2.2

NOTE: this is the "allowable" version that returns a boolean, not an integer.

Not an OGC standard, but Oracle has it too.

Examples

--a circle coveredby a circle
SELECT ST_CoveredBy(smallc,smallc) As smallinsmall,
  ST_CoveredBy(smallc, bigc) As smallcoveredbybig,
  ST_CoveredBy(ST_ExteriorRing(bigc), bigc) As exteriorcoveredbybig,
  ST_Within(ST_ExteriorRing(bigc),bigc) As exeriorwithinbig
FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 10) As smallc,
  ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 20) As bigc) As foo;
  --Result
 smallinsmall | smallcoveredbybig | exteriorcoveredbybig | exeriorwithinbig
--------------+-------------------+----------------------+------------------
 t            | t                 | t                    | f
(1 row) 

Name

ST_Covers — Tests if no point in B is outside A

Synopsis

boolean ST_Covers(geometry geomA, geometry geomB);

boolean ST_Covers(geography geogpolyA, geography geogpointB);

Description

Returns true if no point in Geometry/Geography B is outside Geometry/Geography A. Equivalently, tests if every point of geometry B is inside (i.e. intersects the interior or boundary of) geometry A.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries. To avoid index use, use the function _ST_Covers.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

[Important]

Do not use this function with invalid geometries. You will get unexpected results.

Performed by the GEOS module

Enhanced: 2.4.0 Support for polygon in polygon and line in polygon added for geography type

Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit for geometry extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon.

Availability: 1.5 - support for geography was introduced.

Availability: 1.2.2

NOTE: this is the "allowable" version that returns a boolean, not an integer.

Not an OGC standard, but Oracle has it too.

Examples

Geometry example

--a circle covering a circle
SELECT ST_Covers(smallc,smallc) As smallinsmall,
  ST_Covers(smallc, bigc) As smallcoversbig,
  ST_Covers(bigc, ST_ExteriorRing(bigc)) As bigcoversexterior,
  ST_Contains(bigc, ST_ExteriorRing(bigc)) As bigcontainsexterior
FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 10) As smallc,
  ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 2)'), 20) As bigc) As foo;
  --Result
 smallinsmall | smallcoversbig | bigcoversexterior | bigcontainsexterior
--------------+----------------+-------------------+---------------------
 t            | f              | t                 | f
(1 row) 

Geeography Example

-- a point with a 300 meter buffer compared to a point, a point and its 10 meter buffer
SELECT ST_Covers(geog_poly, geog_pt) As poly_covers_pt,
  ST_Covers(ST_Buffer(geog_pt,10), geog_pt) As buff_10m_covers_cent
  FROM (SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeogFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(-99.327 31.4821)'), 300) As geog_poly,
        ST_GeogFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(-99.33 31.483)') As geog_pt ) As foo;

 poly_covers_pt | buff_10m_covers_cent
----------------+------------------
 f              | t
    

Name

ST_Crosses — Tests if two geometries have some, but not all, interior points in common.

Synopsis

boolean ST_Crosses(geometry g1, geometry g2);

Description

Compares two geometry objects and returns true if their intersection "spatially cross", that is, the geometries have some, but not all interior points in common. The intersection of the interiors of the geometries must be non-empty and must have dimension less than the maximum dimension of the two input geometries. Additionally, the intersection of the two geometries must not equal either of the source geometries. Otherwise, it returns false.

In mathematical terms, this is:

Geometries cross if their DE-9IM Intersection Matrix matches:

  • T*T****** for Point/Line, Point/Area, and Line/Area situations

  • T*****T** for Line/Point, Area/Point, and Area/Line situations

  • 0******** for Line/Line situations

For Point/Point and Area/Area situations this predicate returns false.

The OpenGIS Simple Features Specification defines this predicate only for Point/Line, Point/Area, Line/Line, and Line/Area situations. JTS / GEOS extends the definition to apply to Line/Point, Area/Point and Area/Line situations as well. This makes the relation symmetric.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.13.3

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.29

Examples

The following situations all return true.

MULTIPOINT / LINESTRING

MULTIPOINT / POLYGON

LINESTRING / POLYGON

LINESTRING / LINESTRING

Consider a situation where a user has two tables: a table of roads and a table of highways.

CREATE TABLE roads (
  id serial NOT NULL,
  geom geometry,
  CONSTRAINT roads_pkey PRIMARY KEY (road_id)
);

CREATE TABLE highways (
  id serial NOT NULL,
  the_gem geometry,
  CONSTRAINT roads_pkey PRIMARY KEY (road_id)
);

To determine a list of roads that cross a highway, use a query similiar to:

SELECT roads.id
FROM roads, highways
WHERE ST_Crosses(roads.geom, highways.geom);

Name

ST_Disjoint — Tests if two geometries are disjoint (they have no point in common).

Synopsis

boolean ST_Disjoint( geometry A , geometry B );

Description

Overlaps, Touches, Within all imply geometries are not spatially disjoint. If any of the aforementioned returns true, then the geometries are not spatially disjoint. Disjoint implies false for spatial intersection.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

Performed by the GEOS module

[Note]

This function call does not use indexes

[Note]

NOTE: this is the "allowable" version that returns a boolean, not an integer.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2 //s2.1.13.3 - a.Relate(b, 'FF*FF****')

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.26

Examples

SELECT ST_Disjoint('POINT(0 0)'::geometry, 'LINESTRING ( 2 0, 0 2 )'::geometry);
 st_disjoint
---------------
 t
(1 row)
SELECT ST_Disjoint('POINT(0 0)'::geometry, 'LINESTRING ( 0 0, 0 2 )'::geometry);
 st_disjoint
---------------
 f
(1 row)
    

Voir aussi

ST_Intersects


Name

ST_Equals — Tests if two geometries include the same set of points.

Synopsis

boolean ST_Equals(geometry A, geometry B);

Description

Returns true if the given geometries are "spatially equal". Use this for a 'better' answer than '='. Note by spatially equal we mean ST_Within(A,B) = true and ST_Within(B,A) = true and also mean ordering of points can be different but represent the same geometry structure. To verify the order of points is consistent, use ST_OrderingEquals (it must be noted ST_OrderingEquals is a little more stringent than simply verifying order of points are the same).

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.24

Changed: 2.2.0 Returns true even for invalid geometries if they are binary equal

Examples

SELECT ST_Equals(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 10 10)'),
    ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 5 5, 10 10)'));
 st_equals
-----------
 t
(1 row)

SELECT ST_Equals(ST_Reverse(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 10 10)')),
    ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 5 5, 10 10)'));
 st_equals
-----------
 t
(1 row)

Name

ST_Intersects — Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common).

Synopsis

boolean ST_Intersects( geometry geomA , geometry geomB );

boolean ST_Intersects( geography geogA , geography geogB );

Description

Compares two geometries and returns true if they intersect. Geometries intersect if they have any point in common.

For geography, a distance tolerance of 0.00001 meters is used (so points that are very close are considered to intersect).

Geometries intersect if their DE-9IM Intersection Matrix matches one of:

  • T********

  • *T*******

  • ***T*****

  • ****T****

Spatial intersection is implied by all the other spatial relationship tests, except ST_Disjoint, which tests that geometries do NOT intersect.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries.

Changed: 3.0.0 SFCGAL version removed and native support for 2D TINS added.

Enhanced: 2.5.0 Supports GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.

Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon.

Performed by the GEOS module (for geometry), geography is native

Availability: 1.5 support for geography was introduced.

[Note]

For geography, this function has a distance tolerance of about 0.00001 meters and uses the sphere rather than spheroid calculation.

[Note]

NOTE: this is the "allowable" version that returns a boolean, not an integer.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2 //s2.1.13.3 - ST_Intersects(g1, g2 ) --> Not (ST_Disjoint(g1, g2 ))

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.27

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network Surfaces (TIN).

Geometry Examples

SELECT ST_Intersects('POINT(0 0)'::geometry, 'LINESTRING ( 2 0, 0 2 )'::geometry);
 st_intersects
---------------
 f
(1 row)
SELECT ST_Intersects('POINT(0 0)'::geometry, 'LINESTRING ( 0 0, 0 2 )'::geometry);
 st_intersects
---------------
 t
(1 row)

-- Look up in table. Make sure table has a GiST index on geometry column for faster lookup.
SELECT id, name FROM cities WHERE ST_Intersects(geom, 'SRID=4326;POLYGON((28 53,27.707 52.293,27 52,26.293 52.293,26 53,26.293 53.707,27 54,27.707 53.707,28 53))');
 id | name
----+-------
  2 | Minsk
(1 row)

Geography Examples

SELECT ST_Intersects(
    'SRID=4326;LINESTRING(-43.23456 72.4567,-43.23456 72.4568)'::geography,
    'SRID=4326;POINT(-43.23456 72.4567772)'::geography
    );

 st_intersects
---------------
t

Name

ST_LineCrossingDirection — Returns a number indicating the crossing behavior of two LineStrings.

Synopsis

integer ST_LineCrossingDirection(geometry linestringA, geometry linestringB);

Description

Given two linestrings returns an integer between -3 and 3 indicating what kind of crossing behavior exists between them. 0 indicates no crossing. This is only supported for LINESTRINGs.

The crossing number has the following meaning:

  • 0: LINE NO CROSS

  • -1: LINE CROSS LEFT

  • 1: LINE CROSS RIGHT

  • -2: LINE MULTICROSS END LEFT

  • 2: LINE MULTICROSS END RIGHT

  • -3: LINE MULTICROSS END SAME FIRST LEFT

  • 3: LINE MULTICROSS END SAME FIRST RIGHT

Availability: 1.4

Examples

Example: LINE CROSS LEFT and LINE CROSS RIGHT

Blue: Line A; Green: Line B

SELECT ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineA, lineB) As A_cross_B,
       ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineB, lineA) As B_cross_A
FROM (SELECT
  ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(25 169,89 114,40 70,86 43)') As lineA,
  ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (20 140, 71 74, 161 53)') As lineB
  ) As foo;

 A_cross_B | B_cross_A
-----------+-----------
        -1 |         1

Example: LINE MULTICROSS END SAME FIRST LEFT and LINE MULTICROSS END SAME FIRST RIGHT

Blue: Line A; Green: Line B

SELECT ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineA, lineB) As A_cross_B,
       ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineB, lineA) As B_cross_A
FROM (SELECT
 ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(25 169,89 114,40 70,86 43)') As lineA,
 ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(171 154,20 140,71 74,161 53)') As lineB
  ) As foo;

 A_cross_B | B_cross_A
-----------+-----------
         3 |        -3

Example: LINE MULTICROSS END LEFT and LINE MULTICROSS END RIGHT

Blue: Line A; Green: Line B

SELECT ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineA, lineB) As A_cross_B,
       ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineB, lineA) As B_cross_A
FROM (SELECT
  ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(25 169,89 114,40 70,86 43)') As lineA,
  ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(5 90, 71 74, 20 140, 171 154)') As lineB
  ) As foo;

 A_cross_B | B_cross_A
-----------+-----------
        -2 |         2

Example: LINE MULTICROSS END LEFT and LINE MULTICROSS END RIGHT

Blue: Line A; Green: Line B

SELECT ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineA, lineB) As A_cross_B,
       ST_LineCrossingDirection(lineB, lineA) As B_cross_A
FROM (SELECT
  ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(25 169,89 114,40 70,86 43)') As lineA,
  ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (171 154, 20 140, 71 74, 2.99 90.16)') As lineB
) As foo;

 A_cross_B | B_cross_A
-----------+-----------
         2 |        -2
SELECT s1.gid, s2.gid, ST_LineCrossingDirection(s1.geom, s2.geom)
  FROM streets s1 CROSS JOIN streets s2
         ON (s1.gid != s2.gid AND s1.geom && s2.geom )
WHERE ST_LineCrossingDirection(s1.geom, s2.geom) > 0;

Voir aussi

ST_Crosses


Name

ST_OrderingEquals — Tests if two geometries represent the same geometry and have points in the same directional order.

Synopsis

boolean ST_OrderingEquals(geometry A, geometry B);

Description

ST_OrderingEquals compares two geometries and returns t (TRUE) if the geometries are equal and the coordinates are in the same order; otherwise it returns f (FALSE).

[Note]

This function is implemented as per the ArcSDE SQL specification rather than SQL-MM. http://edndoc.esri.com/arcsde/9.1/sql_api/sqlapi3.htm#ST_OrderingEquals

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.43

Examples

SELECT ST_OrderingEquals(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 10 10)'),
    ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 5 5, 10 10)'));
 st_orderingequals
-----------
 f
(1 row)

SELECT ST_OrderingEquals(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 10 10)'),
    ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 0 0, 10 10)'));
 st_orderingequals
-----------
 t
(1 row)

SELECT ST_OrderingEquals(ST_Reverse(ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 10 10)')),
    ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(0 0, 0 0, 10 10)'));
 st_orderingequals
-----------
 f
(1 row)

Voir aussi

&&, ST_Equals, ST_Reverse


Name

ST_Overlaps — Tests if two geometries intersect and have the same dimension, but are not completely contained by each other.

Synopsis

boolean ST_Overlaps(geometry A, geometry B);

Description

Returns TRUE if geometry A and B "spatially overlap". Two geometries overlap if they have the same dimension, each has at least one point not shared by the other (or equivalently neither covers the other), and the intersection of their interiors has the same dimension. The overlaps relationship is symmetrical.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries. To avoid index use, use the function _ST_Overlaps.

Performed by the GEOS module

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

NOTE: this is the "allowable" version that returns a boolean, not an integer.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2 // s2.1.13.3

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.32

Examples

ST_Overlaps returns TRUE in the following situations:

MULTIPOINT / MULTIPOINT

LINESTRING / LINESTRING

POLYGON / POLYGON

A Point on a LineString is contained, but since it has lower dimension it does not overlap or cross.

SELECT ST_Overlaps(a,b) AS overlaps,       ST_Crosses(a,b) AS crosses,
       ST_Intersects(a, b) AS intersects,  ST_Contains(b,a) AS b_contains_a
FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POINT (100 100)') As a,
             ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING (30 50, 40 160, 160 40, 180 160)')  AS b) AS t

overlaps | crosses | intersects | b_contains_a
---------+----------------------+--------------
f        | f       | t          | t

A LineString that partly covers a Polygon intersects and crosses, but does not overlap since it has different dimension.

SELECT ST_Overlaps(a,b) AS overlaps,        ST_Crosses(a,b) AS crosses,
       ST_Intersects(a, b) AS intersects,   ST_Contains(a,b) AS contains
FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON ((40 170, 90 30, 180 100, 40 170))') AS a,
             ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(10 10, 190 190)') AS b) AS t;

 overlap | crosses | intersects | contains
---------+---------+------------+--------------
 f       | t       | t          | f

Two Polygons that intersect but with neither contained by the other overlap, but do not cross because their intersection has the same dimension.

SELECT ST_Overlaps(a,b) AS overlaps,       ST_Crosses(a,b) AS crosses,
       ST_Intersects(a, b) AS intersects,  ST_Contains(b, a) AS b_contains_a,
       ST_Dimension(a) AS dim_a, ST_Dimension(b) AS dim_b,
       ST_Dimension(ST_Intersection(a,b)) AS dim_int
FROM (SELECT ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON ((40 170, 90 30, 180 100, 40 170))') AS a,
             ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON ((110 180, 20 60, 130 90, 110 180))') AS b) As t;

 overlaps | crosses | intersects | b_contains_a | dim_a | dim_b | dim_int
----------+---------+------------+--------------+-------+-------+-----------
 t        | f       | t          | f            |     2 |     2 |       2

Name

ST_Relate — Tests if two geometries have a topological relationship matching an Intersection Matrix pattern, or computes their Intersection Matrix

Synopsis

boolean ST_Relate(geometry geomA, geometry geomB, text intersectionMatrixPattern);

text ST_Relate(geometry geomA, geometry geomB);

text ST_Relate(geometry geomA, geometry geomB, integer boundaryNodeRule);

Description

These functions allow testing and evaluating the spatial (topological) relationship between two geometries, as defined by the Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model (DE-9IM).

The DE-9IM is specified as a 9-element matrix indicating the dimension of the intersections between the Interior, Boundary and Exterior of two geometries. It is represented by a 9-character text string using the symbols 'F', '0', '1', '2' (e.g. 'FF1FF0102').

A specific kind of spatial relationships is evaluated by comparing the intersection matrix to an intersection matrix pattern. A pattern can include the additional symbols 'T' and '*'. Common spatial relationships are provided by the named functions ST_Contains, ST_ContainsProperly, ST_Covers, ST_CoveredBy, ST_Crosses, ST_Disjoint, ST_Equals, ST_Intersects, ST_Overlaps, ST_Touches, and ST_Within. Using an explicit pattern allows testing multiple conditions of intersects, crosses, etc in one step. It also allows testing spatial relationships which do not have a named spatial relationship function. For example, the relationship "Interior-Intersects" has the DE-9IM pattern T********, which is not evaluated by any named predicate.

For more information refer to Section 5.1, “Déterminer les relations spatiales”.

Variant 1: Tests if two geometries are spatially related according to the given intersectionMatrixPattern.

[Note]

Unlike most of the named spatial relationship predicates, this does NOT automatically include an index call. The reason is that some relationships are true for geometries which do NOT intersect (e.g. Disjoint). If you are using a relationship pattern that requires intersection, then include the && index call.

[Note]

It is better to use a named relationship function if available, since they automatically use a spatial index where one exists. Also, they may implement performance optimizations which are not available with full relate evalation.

Variant 2: Returns the DE-9IM matrix string for the spatial relationship between the two input geometries. The matrix string can be tested for matching a DE-9IM pattern using ST_RelateMatch.

Variant 3: Like variant 2, but allows specifying a Boundary Node Rule. A boundary node rule allows finer control over whether geometry boundary points are considered to lie in the DE-9IM Interior or Boundary. The boundaryNodeRule code is: 1: OGC/MOD2, 2: Endpoint, 3: MultivalentEndpoint, 4: MonovalentEndpoint.

This function is not in the OGC spec, but is implied. see s2.1.13.2

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2 // s2.1.13.3

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.25

Performed by the GEOS module

Enhanced: 2.0.0 - added support for specifying boundary node rule.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

Examples

Using the boolean-valued function to test spatial relationships.

SELECT ST_Relate('POINT(1 2)', ST_Buffer( 'POINT(1 2)', 2), '0FFFFF212');
st_relate
-----------
t

SELECT ST_Relate(POINT(1 2)', ST_Buffer( 'POINT(1 2)', 2), '*FF*FF212');
st_relate
-----------
t

Testing a custom spatial relationship pattern as a query condition, with && to enable using a spatial index.

-- Find compounds that properly intersect (not just touch) a poly (Interior Intersects)

SELECT c.* , p.name As poly_name
    FROM polys AS p
    INNER JOIN compounds As c
          ON c.geom && p.geom
             AND ST_Relate(p.geom, c.geom,'T********');

Computing the intersection matrix for spatial relationships.

SELECT ST_Relate( 'POINT(1 2)',
                  ST_Buffer( 'POINT(1 2)', 2));
st_relate
-----------
0FFFFF212

SELECT ST_Relate( 'LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)',
                  'LINESTRING(5 6, 7 8)' );
st_relate
-----------
FF1FF0102

Name

ST_RelateMatch — Tests if a DE-9IM Intersection Matrix matches an Intersection Matrix pattern

Synopsis

boolean ST_RelateMatch(text intersectionMatrix, text intersectionMatrixPattern);

Description

Tests if a Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model (DE-9IM) intersectionMatrix value satisfies an intersectionMatrixPattern. Intersection matrix values can be computed by ST_Relate.

For more information refer to Section 5.1, “Déterminer les relations spatiales”.

Performed by the GEOS module

Availability: 2.0.0

Examples

SELECT ST_RelateMatch('101202FFF', 'TTTTTTFFF') ;
-- result --
t

Patterns for common spatial relationships matched against intersection matrix values, for a line in various positions relative to a polygon

SELECT pat.name AS relationship, pat.val AS pattern,
       mat.name AS position, mat.val AS matrix,
       ST_RelateMatch(mat.val, pat.val) AS match
    FROM (VALUES ( 'Equality', 'T1FF1FFF1' ),
                 ( 'Overlaps', 'T*T***T**' ),
                 ( 'Within',   'T*F**F***' ),
                 ( 'Disjoint', 'FF*FF****' )) AS pat(name,val)
    CROSS JOIN
        (VALUES  ('non-intersecting', 'FF1FF0212'),
                 ('overlapping',      '1010F0212'),
                 ('inside',           '1FF0FF212')) AS mat(name,val);

 relationship |  pattern  |     position     |  matrix   | match
--------------+-----------+------------------+-----------+-------
 Equality     | T1FF1FFF1 | non-intersecting | FF1FF0212 | f
 Equality     | T1FF1FFF1 | overlapping      | 1010F0212 | f
 Equality     | T1FF1FFF1 | inside           | 1FF0FF212 | f
 Overlaps     | T*T***T** | non-intersecting | FF1FF0212 | f
 Overlaps     | T*T***T** | overlapping      | 1010F0212 | t
 Overlaps     | T*T***T** | inside           | 1FF0FF212 | f
 Within       | T*F**F*** | non-intersecting | FF1FF0212 | f
 Within       | T*F**F*** | overlapping      | 1010F0212 | f
 Within       | T*F**F*** | inside           | 1FF0FF212 | t
 Disjoint     | FF*FF**** | non-intersecting | FF1FF0212 | t
 Disjoint     | FF*FF**** | overlapping      | 1010F0212 | f
 Disjoint     | FF*FF**** | inside           | 1FF0FF212 | f

Name

ST_Touches — Tests if two geometries have at least one point in common, but their interiors do not intersect.

Synopsis

boolean ST_Touches(geometry A, geometry B);

Description

Returns TRUE if A and B intersect, but their interiors do not intersect. Equivalently, A and B have at least one point in common, and the common points lie in at least one boundary. For Point/Point inputs the relationship is always FALSE, since points do not have a boundary.

In mathematical terms, this relationship is:

This relationship holds if the DE-9IM Intersection Matrix for the two geometries matches one of:

  • FT*******

  • F**T*****

  • F***T****

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries. To avoid using an index, use _ST_Touches instead.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2 // s2.1.13.3

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.28

Examples

The ST_Touches predicate returns TRUE in the following examples.

POLYGON / POLYGON

POLYGON / POLYGON

POLYGON / LINESTRING

LINESTRING / LINESTRING

LINESTRING / LINESTRING

POLYGON / POINT

SELECT ST_Touches('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 0 2)'::geometry, 'POINT(1 1)'::geometry);
 st_touches
------------
 f
(1 row)

SELECT ST_Touches('LINESTRING(0 0, 1 1, 0 2)'::geometry, 'POINT(0 2)'::geometry);
 st_touches
------------
 t
(1 row)

Name

ST_Within — Tests if no points of A lie in the exterior of B, and A and B have at least one interior point in common.

Synopsis

boolean ST_Within(geometry A, geometry B);

Description

Returns TRUE if geometry A is completely inside geometry B. For this function to make sense, the source geometries must both be of the same coordinate projection, having the same SRID. It is a given that if ST_Within(A,B) is true and ST_Within(B,A) is true, then the two geometries are considered spatially equal.

A subtlety of this definition is that the boundary of a geometry is not within the geometry. This means that lines and points lying in the boundary of a polygon or line are not within the geometry. For further details see Subtleties of OGC Covers, Contains, Within. (The ST_CoveredBy predicate provides a more inclusive relationship).

ST_Within is the inverse of ST_Contains. So, ST_Within(A,B) = ST_Contains(B,A).

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries. To avoid index use, use the function _ST_Within.

Performed by the GEOS module

Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit for geometry extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon.

[Important]

Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

[Important]

Do not use this function with invalid geometries. You will get unexpected results.

NOTE: this is the "allowable" version that returns a boolean, not an integer.

This method implements the OGC Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL 1.1. s2.1.1.2 // s2.1.13.3 - a.Relate(b, 'T*F**F***')

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.30

Examples

--a circle within a circle
SELECT ST_Within(smallc,smallc) As smallinsmall,
  ST_Within(smallc, bigc) As smallinbig,
  ST_Within(bigc,smallc) As biginsmall,
  ST_Within(ST_Union(smallc, bigc), bigc) as unioninbig,
  ST_Within(bigc, ST_Union(smallc, bigc)) as biginunion,
  ST_Equals(bigc, ST_Union(smallc, bigc)) as bigisunion
FROM
(
SELECT ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(50 50)'), 20) As smallc,
  ST_Buffer(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(50 50)'), 40) As bigc) As foo;
--Result
 smallinsmall | smallinbig | biginsmall | unioninbig | biginunion | bigisunion
--------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------
 t            | t          | f          | t          | t          | t
(1 row)
    

8.11.2. Distance Relationships

ST_3DDWithin — Tests if two 3D geometries are within a given 3D distance
ST_3DDFullyWithin — Tests if two 3D geometries are entirely within a given 3D distance
ST_DFullyWithin — Tests if two geometries are entirely within a given distance
ST_DWithin — Tests if two geometries are within a given distance
ST_PointInsideCircle — Tests if a point geometry is inside a circle defined by a center and radius.

Name

ST_3DDWithin — Tests if two 3D geometries are within a given 3D distance

Synopsis

boolean ST_3DDWithin(geometry g1, geometry g2, double precision distance_of_srid);

Description

Returns true if the 3D distance between two geometry values is no larger than distance distance_of_srid. The distance is specified in units defined by the spatial reference system of the geometries. For this function to make sense the source geometries must be in the same coordinate system (have the same SRID).

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries.

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM ?

Availability: 2.0.0

Examples

-- Geometry example - units in meters (SRID: 2163 US National Atlas Equal area) (3D point and line compared 2D point and line)
-- Note: currently no vertical datum support so Z is not transformed and assumed to be same units as final.
SELECT ST_3DDWithin(
      ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4326;POINT(-72.1235 42.3521 4)'),2163),
      ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4326;LINESTRING(-72.1260 42.45 15, -72.123 42.1546 20)'),2163),
      126.8
    ) As within_dist_3d,
ST_DWithin(
      ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4326;POINT(-72.1235 42.3521 4)'),2163),
      ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4326;LINESTRING(-72.1260 42.45 15, -72.123 42.1546 20)'),2163),
      126.8
    ) As within_dist_2d;

 within_dist_3d | within_dist_2d
----------------+----------------
 f              | t

Name

ST_3DDFullyWithin — Tests if two 3D geometries are entirely within a given 3D distance

Synopsis

boolean ST_3DDFullyWithin(geometry g1, geometry g2, double precision distance);

Description

Returns true if the 3D geometries are fully within the specified distance of one another. The distance is specified in units defined by the spatial reference system of the geometries. For this function to make sense, the source geometries must both be of the same coordinate projection, having the same SRID.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries.

Availability: 2.0.0

This function supports 3d and will not drop the z-index.

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.

Examples

-- This compares the difference between fully within and distance within as well
    -- as the distance fully within for the 2D footprint of the line/point vs. the 3d fully within
    SELECT ST_3DDFullyWithin(geom_a, geom_b, 10) as D3DFullyWithin10, ST_3DDWithin(geom_a, geom_b, 10) as D3DWithin10,
  ST_DFullyWithin(geom_a, geom_b, 20) as D2DFullyWithin20,
  ST_3DDFullyWithin(geom_a, geom_b, 20) as D3DFullyWithin20 from
    (select ST_GeomFromEWKT('POINT(1 1 2)') as geom_a,
    ST_GeomFromEWKT('LINESTRING(1 5 2, 2 7 20, 1 9 100, 14 12 3)') as geom_b) t1;
 d3dfullywithin10 | d3dwithin10 | d2dfullywithin20 | d3dfullywithin20
------------------+-------------+------------------+------------------
 f                | t           | t                | f 

Name

ST_DFullyWithin — Tests if two geometries are entirely within a given distance

Synopsis

boolean ST_DFullyWithin(geometry g1, geometry g2, double precision distance);

Description

Returns true if the geometries are entirely within the specified distance of one another. The distance is specified in units defined by the spatial reference system of the geometries. For this function to make sense, the source geometries must both be of the same coordinate projection, having the same SRID.

[Note]

This function automatically includes a bounding box comparison that makes use of any spatial indexes that are available on the geometries.

Availability: 1.5.0

Examples

postgis=# SELECT ST_DFullyWithin(geom_a, geom_b, 10) as DFullyWithin10, ST_DWithin(geom_a, geom_b, 10) as DWithin10, ST_DFullyWithin(geom_a, geom_b, 20) as DFullyWithin20 from
    (select ST_GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)') as geom_a,ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 5, 2 7, 1 9, 14 12)') as geom_b) t1;

-----------------
 DFullyWithin10 | DWithin10 | DFullyWithin20 |
---------------+----------+---------------+
 f             | t        | t             |